Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR)

Schinus terebinthifolius
(Anacardiaceae)

Brazilian holly, Brazilian pepper, Christmas berry, Florida holly

image of Schinus terebinthifolius image of Schinus terebinthifolius image of Schinus terebinthifolius
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HEAR home  >  species info  >  plants  >  Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae)
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Species description or overview Taxonomy & nomenclature Impacts Risk assessments Control methods
Biocontrol efforts Images Distribution Where to see this species Books
In the news Full-text articles Experts Other resources  

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Schinus terebinthifolius, known as Brazilian peppertree or Christmasberry, was introduced to Hawaii prior to 1900, and was used for reforestation by 1928.  The invasive nature of Schinus terebinthifolius became apparent after its introduction and the tree is now classified as a noxious weed in Hawaii.  Schinus terebinthifolius is native to Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. 


Species description or overview

Information about Schinus terebinthifolius from IUCN's ISSG/GISD
Information about Rattus exulans is available from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) (a product of IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group [ISSG]).

Schinus terebinthifolius information from CTAHR (Motooka et al.) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Information about Schinus terebinthifolius from "Weeds of Hawaii's pastures and natural areas: an identification and management guide" (Motooka et al. 2003) is provided by the University of Hawaii's College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR).

Schinus terebinthifolius information from PIER
Information on Schinus terebinthifolius as relevant to Pacific Islands is provided by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER).

Schinus terebinthifolius description and ecology from GISD (ISSG)
A species description and information about the ecology of Schinus terebinthifolius as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).

Schinus terebinthifolius information from "Common forest trees of Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Information about Schinus terebinthifolius is presented with respect to this species being a forest tree in Hawaii. The information on this site is from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) 1989 publication by Little and Skolmen entitled "Common forest trees of Hawaii (native and introduced)."


Taxonomy & nomenclature

GRIN nomenclature info for Schinus terebinthifolius
Nomenclatural information about Schinus terebinthifolius is provided by USDA/ARS/NGRP/GRIN.

Schinus terebinthifolius information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Schinus terebinthifolius--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.

Schinus terebinthifolius information from ITIS
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS provides authoritative taxonomic information on Schinus terebinthifolius, as well as other plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

IPNI nomenclature info for Schinus terebinthifolius
Nomenclatural information about Schinus terebinthifolius is provided by The International Plant Names Index (IPNI).


Impacts

Brazilian Pepper Management Plan for Florida View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This comprehensive plan for the management of Brazilian Pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) in Florida in available online in full text.

Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae): species information from GCW
Information on Schinus terebinthifolius as relevant to Pacific Islands is provided by the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Schinus terebinthifolius impact information from GISD (ISSG)
Impact information regarding Schinus terebinthifolius as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Risk assessments

Schinus terebinthifolius weed risk assessment for Hawaii-Pacific
Results of a weed risk assessment for Schinus terebinthifolius for the Hawaii-Pacific region are presented by the Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment team.

Weed risk assessment for Schinus terebinthifolius for Florida (TNC) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
A weed risk assessment for Schinus terebinthifolius for Florida is presented by The Nature Conservancy (Doria Gordon et al.).


Control methods

Brazilian Pepper Management Plan for Florida View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This comprehensive plan for the management of Brazilian Pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) in Florida in available online in full text.

Schinus terebinthifolius information from CTAHR (Motooka et al.) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Information about Schinus terebinthifolius from "Weeds of Hawaii's pastures and natural areas: an identification and management guide" (Motooka et al. 2003) is provided by the University of Hawaii's College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR).

Current researches of Brazilian weeds in Paraná State - Biological control of weeds program, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
A review of the biological control program at Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil, is presented.

Schinus terebinthifolius management information from GISD (ISSG)
Management information for Schinus terebinthifolius as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).

Summaries of herbicide trials for pasture, range, and non-cropland weed control -1999 View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Herbicide trials compare herbicides and methods of application on a variety of weedy species in Hawaii (University of Hawaii).

Herbicidal weed control methods for pastures and natural areas of Hawaii View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This comprehensive review of herbicide application methods includes calculations for formulations, and appendices listing herbicides registered for use in Hawaii and their toxicities (University of Hawaii, 2002).


Biocontrol efforts

Host specificity and risk assessment of Heteroperryia hubrichi, a potential classical biological control agent of christmasberry (Schinus terebinthifolius) in Hawaii
Hight, Stephen D. 2002. Host specificity and risk assessment of Heteroperryia hubrichi, a potential classical biological control agent of christmasberry (Schinus terebinthifolius) in Hawaii. pp 30-44 in Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds). 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages. from http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/duffy/techr/129.pdf accessed 16 March 2008.

Schinus terebinthifolius as a biocontrol target in Hawaii
Information and references regarding Schinus terebinthifolius as a biocontrol target in Hawaii--including the status of each of its biocontrol agents--are provided by the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).


Images

Images of Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae) (Brazillian pepper tree, christmas berry, wilelaiki, naniohilo)
Links to high-resolution free images of Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae) (Brazillian pepper tree, christmas berry, wilelaiki, naniohilo) by Forest & Kim Starr (USGS) are available here.

Schinus terebinthifolius information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Schinus terebinthifolius in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Schinus terebinthifolius images from PIER
Images of Schinus terebinthifolius provided by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER).


Distribution

Schinus terebinthifolius information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Schinus terebinthifolius in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Schinus terebinthifolius information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Schinus terebinthifolius--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.

Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy (2000) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The status of invasive plants, vertebrates, arthropods, molluscs, and crustaceans, and options for a regional invasive species strategy for the South Pacific are presented in this series of articles from the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, 2000.

Schinus terebinthifolius worldwide distribution from GISD (ISSG)
Worldwide distribution information about Schinus terebinthifolius is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Where to see this species

Auwahi - Dry forest of Maui
Images, history, and ethnobotany of Auwahi are on the HEAR website.


Books

Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives)
Veitch, C.R. and M.N. Clout (eds.) . 2002. Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. vii + 414pp. ISBN: 2-8317-0682-3.

Invasive plants of California's wildlands
Bossard, Carla C., John M. Randall, and Marc C. Hoshovsky (eds.) . 2000. Invasive plants of California's wildlands. University of California Press. 360 pp. illus. ISBN: 0-520-22547-3.

Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide
Motooka, Philip, Luisa Castro, Duane Nelson, Guy Nagai, and Lincoln Ching. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (University of Hawaii--Manoa), Honolulu. 184 pp. color illus. ISBN: 1-929325-14-2.

Identification and biology of nonnative plants in Florida's natural areas (second edition)
Langeland, K.A., H.M. Cherry, C.M. McCormick, and K.A. Craddock Burks. 2008. Identification and biology of nonnative plants in Florida's natural areas (second edition). The University of Florida IFAS Communication Services (Gainesville). 193+ pp. illus. ISBN: 978-0-916287-70-2.


In the news

Fighting invasive species with biocontrol (Maui News, 5/29/2005)
The battle against some of the most destructive invasive species in Hawaii might be won only with the help of the biocontrol, the introduction of more species. Various experts comment on changing attitudes toward this method.


Full-text articles

Brazilian Pepper Management Plan for Florida View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This comprehensive plan for the management of Brazilian Pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) in Florida in available online in full text.

Kanaio Natural Area Reserve: biological inventory and management recommendations
Medeiros, Arthur C., Lloyd L. Loope, and C.G. Chimera. 1993. Kanaio Natural Area Reserve: biological inventory and management recommendations. Natural Area Reserve System, State of Hawaii.

Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research
Stone, Charles P., Clifford W. Smith, and J. Timothy Tunison (eds.) . 1992. Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit. ISBN: 0-8248-1474-6.

Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy
South Pacific Regional Environmental Programme (SPREP). Sherley, Greg (ed.) . 2000. Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. Apia, Samoa: South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. ISBN: 982-04-0214-X.

Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives)
Veitch, C.R. and M.N. Clout (eds.) . 2002. Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. vii + 414pp. ISBN: 2-8317-0682-3.

Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide
Motooka, Philip, Luisa Castro, Duane Nelson, Guy Nagai, and Lincoln Ching. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (University of Hawaii--Manoa), Honolulu. 184 pp. color illus. ISBN: 1-929325-14-2.

Maui Offshore Islet Botanical Survey
Starr, F., K. Starr, and Wood K. 2006. Maui Offshore Islet Botanical Survey. Report prepared for State Department of Land and Natural Resources and the Offshore Islet Restoration Committee, Honolulu, Hawaii.

An updated, indexed bibliography of the herpetofauna of Florida
Enge, Kevin M. 2002. An updated, indexed bibliography of the herpetofauna of Florida. Technical report no. 19.

Control of non-native plants in natural areas of Florida
Langeland, K.A. and R.L. Stocker. (1997-)2001. Control of non-native plants in natural areas of Florida. SP 242, one of a series of the Department of Agronomy, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. First printed: 1997. Revised: April, 2001.

Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants on Midway Atoll, Hawaii.
Starr, F., K. Starr, and Loope L. 2006. Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants on Midway Atoll, Hawaii. An addendum to the 1999 Botanical Survey of Midway Atoll.

Status of Non-native Plants in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands
Starr, F., K. Starr, and Loope L. 2001. Status of Non-native Plants in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Poster presentation, 2001 Hawaii Conservation Conference (Hilo, Hawaii).

Botanical survey of Midway Atoll
Starr, F. and K. Martz. 1999. Botanical survey of Midway Atoll. In: 1995-1999 Baseline Surveys for Alien Species in Marine and Terrestrial Habitats on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Oahu Offshore Islets Botanical Survey
Starr, F. and K. Starr. 2006. Oahu Offshore Islets Botanical Survey. Report prepared for State Department of Land and Natural Resources and the Offshore Islet Restoration Committee, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii
Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds.) . 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages.

Host specificity and risk assessment of Heteroperryia hubrichi, a potential classical biological control agent of christmasberry (Schinus terebinthifolius) in Hawaii
Hight, Stephen D. 2002. Host specificity and risk assessment of Heteroperryia hubrichi, a potential classical biological control agent of christmasberry (Schinus terebinthifolius) in Hawaii. pp 30-44 in Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds). 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages. from http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/duffy/techr/129.pdf accessed 16 March 2008.

Biological control of invasive plants in native Hawaiian ecosystems (synthesis and conclusions)
Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight. 2002. Biological control of invasive plants in native Hawaiian ecosystems (synthesis and conclusions). pp. 117-122 in 2002. Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight. pp. 117-122 in Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds). 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages. from http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/duffy/techr/129.pdf accessed 16 March 2008.


Experts

Schinus terebinthifolius contacts from GISD (ISSG)
Contact information for experts on Schinus terebinthifolius as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Other resources

Schinus terebinthifolius references from GISD (ISSG)
References regarding Schinus terebinthifolius as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


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The Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk (HEAR) project was historically funded by the Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) through PIERC (USGS) with support from HCSU (UH Hilo). More details are available online. Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII)

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