Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR)

Psidium cattleianum
(Myrtaceae)

Cattley guava, Chinese guava, cherry guava, purple guava, small guava, strawberry guava

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Dispersal and pathways Risk assessments Control methods Biocontrol efforts Pests of this species Legislation/regulation
Videos Images Distribution Cited as invasive Cited as invasive (on a list) Books
In the news Full-text articles Presentations Experts Other resources  

HEAR CLOSING      HEAR CLOSING      HEAR CLOSING

A message from Dr. David Duffy, Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (PCSU), University of Hawaii (posted 05 November 2012):

Because of a lack of funds, HEAR (www.hear.org) may close as soon as December 15, although there may be enough funds to extend it until February 15. This will mean several things. The web site will be placed on a new server although it is not clear who will pay for the server or for transitioning the site. HEAR data will not be updated. The Pacific Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) (http://www.hear.org/pier/abtproj.htm) site will also become frozen, as will numerous books, reports and papers (http://www.hear.org/). As software evolves we will likely lose the ability to access the data. The various list servers will need new owners, otherwise moderated lists will cease to function altogether, while other lists will not be able to add or delete members. The photo collection (http://www.hear.org/starr/images/?o=plants) will remain accessible, but only through a third party site that will charge for access.

I should point out that we have already lost the original homes of both the Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) and Pacific Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) although they have found temporary refuges. Together with HEAR, they represent the corporate memory both here in Hawaii and across the Pacific of efforts to sustain our natural ecosystems and agriculture against problems caused by species alien to the islands. HEAR also serves as the glue that holds the community together, providing information and facilitating communication. I just hope hindsight is kind to this decision.

PLEASE SEND YOUR COMMENTS/SUGGESTIONS TO webmaster@hear.org

Let us know if you have suggestions for additional references to add to this page.

Psidium cattleianum has been in Hawaii for more than 100 years, and it is tied to modern local culture as a food source and useful wood.  Psidium cattleianum is native to Brazil. 

Featured items

Dispersal ecology of the strawberry guava: Chapter 7 from "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The synergy between feral pigs and strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum) is revealed in research on the dispersal mechanisms of strawberry guava in this section of Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

Importing safe insects the only hope of saving Maui's native koa forests
Maui botanist Art Medeiros supports the introduction of the scale insect for strawberry guava biological control. His arguments are expressed in this Viewpoints article (Maui News, 11/2/2008).

Strawberry guava sows seeds of infestation View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Strawberry guava's threat to our forests is the topic of the Maui Invasive Species Committee (MISC) Kiai Moku Maui News column (9/14/2008).

Controversy flares over proposal to control waiawi [strawberry guava] with scale insect View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
"The proposed release of a scale insect to control strawberry guava, or waiawi (Psidium cattleianum), has sparked an outcry of opposition among some sectors of the public. Yet, although the opposition means a delay in the scheduled release, the scientists most closely involved with the project say they welcome the development as an opportunity to educate the public about what they do and the ways in which their plan can work to the state's benefit."

Fact and fiction about waiawi [strawberry guava] control View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
"Opponents of the planned introduction of a biocontrol agent for strawberry guava have raised several arguments. Here are the top concerns, along with the responses from scientists with the Forest Service, the USDA Agricultural Research Service, and others...."

Phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal and predation, and seedling establishment of three invasive plant species in a Hawaiian rain forest
After rain forest of Haleakala National Park was fenced in the late 1980s, native vegetation responded vigorously yet three problematic plant invaders (Clidemia hirta, Hedychium gardnerianum, and Psidium cattleianum) continued to spread unabated and became of great concern to Park managers. This contribution provides a quantitative assessment of crucial life history junctures (quantitative phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal, seed predation, seedling establishment) to assist Haleakala NP and other managers of Hawaiian rain forests. It also provides detailed information for potentially identifying key characteristics in prevention, rapid response, and prioritization of incoming invasive species. (This document is the 2004 Ph.D. dissertation of Dr. Arthur C. Medeiros for the Department of Zoology at the University of Hawaii.)


What's new?

Final Environmental Assessment: Biocontrol of Strawberry Guava by its Natural Control Agent for Preservation of Native Forests in the Hawaiian Islands View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The Final Environmental Assessment: Biocontrol of Strawberry Guava by its Natural Control Agent for Preservation of Native Forests in the Hawaiian Islands, including the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and copies of testimony submitted in response to the draft document, is now available.


Species description or overview

Psidium cattleianum information from CTAHR (Motooka et al.) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Information about Psidium cattleianum from "Weeds of Hawaii's pastures and natural areas: an identification and management guide" (Motooka et al. 2003) is provided by the University of Hawaii's College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR).

Strawberry guava: Not all green is good
The impacts of strawberry guava on Hawaii's native forest, images, and frequently asked questions are presented by the Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry.

Psidium cattleianum information from PIER
Information on Psidium cattleianum as relevant to Pacific Islands is provided by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER).

Psidium cattleianum description and ecology from GISD (ISSG)
A species description and information about the ecology of Psidium cattleianum as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).

Strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum) fact sheet
Strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum) description, habitat, biology, and management options are provided by Plant Conservation Alliance's Alien Plant Working Group.

Psidium cattleianum information from "Common forest trees of Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Information about Psidium cattleianum is presented with respect to this species being a forest tree in Hawaii. The information on this site is from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) 1989 publication by Little and Skolmen entitled "Common forest trees of Hawaii (native and introduced)."


Taxonomy & nomenclature

GRIN nomenclature info for Psidium cattleianum
Nomenclatural information about Psidium cattleianum is provided by USDA/ARS/NGRP/GRIN.

Psidium cattleianum information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Psidium cattleianum--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.

Psidium cattleianum information from ITIS
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS provides authoritative taxonomic information on Psidium cattleianum, as well as other plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

IPNI nomenclature info for Psidium cattleianum
Nomenclatural information about Psidium cattleianum is provided by The International Plant Names Index (IPNI).


Pest alerts

Petition for field release of Tectococcus ovatus (Homoptera: Eriococcidae) for classical biological control of strawberry guava, Psidium cattleianum Sabine (Myrtaceae), in Hawaii (10 May 2005) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
"Tectococcus ovatus is proposed for release into the environment for biological control of P[sidium] cattleianum in the state of Hawaii. This highly specific insect produces leaf galls on P. cattleianum in its native range in Brazil. It is expected to reduce growth and reproduction of P. cattleianum, thereby limiting spread of the weed and production of fruits available to pest fruit flies...."


Impacts

Dispersal ecology of the strawberry guava: Chapter 7 from "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The synergy between feral pigs and strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum) is revealed in research on the dispersal mechanisms of strawberry guava in this section of Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

Strawberry guava: Not all green is good
The impacts of strawberry guava on Hawaii's native forest, images, and frequently asked questions are presented by the Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry.

Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui
Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation on the feral pig also includes important information about strawberry guava as an invasive species on Maui (1982).

History of feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley: Chapter 4 from "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The history of the feral pig invasion of Kipahulu Valley is discussed in this section of Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation on feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley, Maui (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

Food and feeding habits of feral pigs: Chapter 6 from "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Stomach contents were analyzed to determine the feeding habits of feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley in this section of Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

General discussion: Chapter 13 from "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Factors affecting the ecology of feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley are discussed in this section of Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

Control of invasive alien weeds averts imminent plant extinction (citation)
Strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum) is covered in this article on alien weeds from Biological Invasions (2011).

Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae): species information from GCW
Information on Psidium cattleianum as relevant to Pacific Islands is provided by the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Psidium cattleianum impact information from GISD (ISSG)
Impact information regarding Psidium cattleianum as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Dispersal and pathways

Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii (abstract) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This abstract summarizes research relating food quality and population biology of the feral pig in Kipahulu Valley, from Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.


Risk assessments

Psidium cattleianum weed risk assessment for Hawaii-Pacific
Results of a weed risk assessment for Psidium cattleianum for the Hawaii-Pacific region are presented by the Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment team.


Control methods

Strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum) fact sheet
Strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum) description, habitat, biology, and management options are provided by Plant Conservation Alliance's Alien Plant Working Group.

Psidium cattleianum information from CTAHR (Motooka et al.) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Information about Psidium cattleianum from "Weeds of Hawaii's pastures and natural areas: an identification and management guide" (Motooka et al. 2003) is provided by the University of Hawaii's College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR).

Biological control of strawberry guava in Hawaii
Information about strawberry guava, the threat it poses to native forests, and the proposal to manage the invasive tree using biological control are presented by the Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry.

Psidium cattleianum management information from GISD (ISSG)
Management information for Psidium cattleianum as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).

Summaries of herbicide trials for pasture, range, and non-cropland weed control -1999 View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Herbicide trials compare herbicides and methods of application on a variety of weedy species in Hawaii (University of Hawaii).

Herbicidal weed control methods for pastures and natural areas of Hawaii View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This comprehensive review of herbicide application methods includes calculations for formulations, and appendices listing herbicides registered for use in Hawaii and their toxicities (University of Hawaii, 2002).


Biocontrol efforts

Psidium cattleianum as a biocontrol target in Hawaii  important item 
Information and references regarding Psidium cattleianum as a biocontrol target in Hawaii--including the status of each of its biocontrol agents--are provided by the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Final Environmental Assessment: Biocontrol of Strawberry Guava by its Natural Control Agent for Preservation of Native Forests in the Hawaiian Islands View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The Final Environmental Assessment: Biocontrol of Strawberry Guava by its Natural Control Agent for Preservation of Native Forests in the Hawaiian Islands, including the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and copies of testimony submitted in response to the draft document, is now available.

Insect release proposed to control exotic strawberry guava View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
"U.S. Forest Service scientists with the Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry have submitted a proposal to release a Brazilian insect to control the spread of strawberry guava, a South American tree that has invaded and degraded native Hawaiían ecosystems since it was introduced in 1825 as a garden plant."

Bugs could slow strawberry guava
"Bugs could slow strawberry guava" discusses the possibility of releasing a biocontrol agent (Tectococcus ovatus) in Hawaii to slow the spread of the invasive strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum). Strawberry guava trees threaten the existence of many native ecosystems in Hawaii.

Biological control of strawberry guava in Hawaii  important item 
Information about strawberry guava, the threat it poses to native forests, and the proposal to manage the invasive tree using biological control are presented by the Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry.

Host specificity of Tectococcus ovatus (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae), a potential biological control agent of the invasive strawberry guava, Psidium cattleianum (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), in Florida
"In total, 57 plant species representing 21 families were included in the host range tests.... The results of the host specificity tests suggest that [Tectococcusovatus is a suitable candidate for classical biological control of strawberry guava in Florida."

Tectococcus ovatus (a type of scale): species information from HEAR
Categorized information about Tectococcus ovatus (a type of scale) is presented by the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Strawberry guava biocontrol possible
The proposal to release a scale insect as a biocontrol for strawberry guava in Hawaii is discussed in the Raising Islands blog by Jan TenBruggencate (7/12/2008).

Hawaii County Resolution 0809 (regarding ban on biocontrol agents for Myrtaceae on the Big Island [Hawaii]) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Hawaii County Resolution 0809 requests a ban on the release of biological control agents on the Island of Hawaii, Including insects, fungi, bacteria, viruses, or other pathogens for any tree species related to ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha), including all species of the family Myrtaceae, such as the strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum).

Maui County Resolution 2009-035: supporting safe, effective biological control for Maui County's forest pests View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Maui County resolution 2009-035 recognizes the importance of saving the native forests of Maui County for the water resources and cultural, biological, and economic benefits they yield in Maui County; and acknowledges the potential hazards of biocontrol and the profound danger posed by non-action at this critical juncture; and supports increased funding for required quarantine infrastructure and research for exploration, testing, and release of organisms to assist in control of Maui County forest pests.

Insect released proposed to control exotic strawberry guava View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
"U.S. Forest Service scientists with the Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry have submitted a proposal to release a Brazilian insect to control the spread of strawberry guava, a South American tree that has invaded and degraded native Hawaiian ecosystems since it was introduced in 1825 as a garden plant."

Biocontrol: Protection on a large scale, for the long run
An overview of biocontrol, multimedia gallery, and proposed strawberry guava biocontrol plan are presented by the Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry.

Petition for field release of Tectococcus ovatus (Homoptera: Eriococcidae) for classical biological control of strawberry guava, Psidium cattleianum Sabine (Myrtaceae), in Hawaii (10 May 2005) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
"Tectococcus ovatus is proposed for release into the environment for biological control of P[sidium] cattleianum in the state of Hawaii. This highly specific insect produces leaf galls on P. cattleianum in its native range in Brazil. It is expected to reduce growth and reproduction of P. cattleianum, thereby limiting spread of the weed and production of fruits available to pest fruit flies...."

Controversy flares over proposal to control waiawi [strawberry guava] with scale insect View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
"The proposed release of a scale insect to control strawberry guava, or waiawi (Psidium cattleianum), has sparked an outcry of opposition among some sectors of the public. Yet, although the opposition means a delay in the scheduled release, the scientists most closely involved with the project say they welcome the development as an opportunity to educate the public about what they do and the ways in which their plan can work to the state's benefit."

Forest pest biological control program in Hawaii
Smith, Clifford W. 2002. Forest pest biological control program in Hawaii. pp. 91-98 in Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds). 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages. from http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/duffy/techr/129.pdf accessed 16 March 2008.

Strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum): prospects for biological control
Smith, Clifford W. and Charles Wikler. 2002. Strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum): prospects for biological control. pp. 108-116 in Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds). 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages. from http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/duffy/techr/129.pdf accessed 16 March 2008.

Biocontrol precision is weapon against invaders View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Strawberry guava and biocontrol issues are reviewed in this second of a two part series from the Kiai Moku column of the Maui News (Lloyd Loope, 10/12/2008).

Current researches of Brazilian weeds in Paraná State - Biological control of weeds program, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
A review of the biological control program at Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil, is presented.

Strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum)--prospects for biological control View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The impacts of seven species of insects that have significant deleterious effects on Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava) are presented.

Ecology of invasive plant species; their impacts on ecosystems of Hawaii and the Pacific Islands; and their biological control agents
The objectives of the project described here are to (1) increase understanding of invasive plants on native forest ecosystems of Hawaii; (2) develop understanding of biological agents released for invasive weed control; (3) develop biological control agents; (4) increase information on distribution of invasive species; (5) increase information on invasiveness of commonly used plants; (6) increase awareness of the hazards in using invasive plants in landscaping; and (7) increase abilities of agencies to prevent and manage invasive species.


Pests of this species

Biocontrol precision is weapon against invaders View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Strawberry guava and biocontrol issues are reviewed in this second of a two part series from the Kiai Moku column of the Maui News (Lloyd Loope, 10/12/2008).

Host specificity of Tectococcus ovatus (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae), a potential biological control agent of the invasive strawberry guava, Psidium cattleianum (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), in Florida View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
"In total, 57 plant species representing 21 families were included in the host range tests.... The results of the host specificity tests suggest that T[ectococcus] ovatus is a suitable candidate for classical biological control of strawberry guava in Florida."


Legislation/regulation

Final Environmental Assessment: Biocontrol of Strawberry Guava by its Natural Control Agent for Preservation of Native Forests in the Hawaiian Islands View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The Final Environmental Assessment: Biocontrol of Strawberry Guava by its Natural Control Agent for Preservation of Native Forests in the Hawaiian Islands, including the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and copies of testimony submitted in response to the draft document, is now available.

Petition for field release of Tectococcus ovatus (Homoptera: Eriococcidae) for classical biological control of strawberry guava, Psidium cattleianum Sabine (Myrtaceae), in Hawaii (10 May 2005) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
"Tectococcus ovatus is proposed for release into the environment for biological control of P[sidium] cattleianum in the state of Hawaii. This highly specific insect produces leaf galls on P. cattleianum in its native range in Brazil. It is expected to reduce growth and reproduction of P. cattleianum, thereby limiting spread of the weed and production of fruits available to pest fruit flies...."

Save the strawberry guava site
Alliance against biocontrol of strawberry guava posts their arguments and petition at this site.


Videos

State declares war on strawberry guava trees (video)
Christy Martin from the Partnership to Protect Hawaiian Species discusses how the state plans to introduce a new insect to control the invasive strawberry guava tree (KITV 4, 07/01/2010, on YouTube).


Images

Psidium littorale images
Images and synonyms of Psidium littorale are presented by Wikipedia.

Images of Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae) (strawberry guava)
Links to high-resolution free images of Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae) (strawberry guava) by Forest & Kim Starr (USGS) are available here.

Psidium cattleianum information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Psidium cattleianum in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Insect released proposed to control exotic strawberry guava View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
"U.S. Forest Service scientists with the Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry have submitted a proposal to release a Brazilian insect to control the spread of strawberry guava, a South American tree that has invaded and degraded native Hawaiian ecosystems since it was introduced in 1825 as a garden plant."

Psidium cattleianum images from PIER
Images of Psidium cattleianum provided by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER).


Distribution

Psidium cattleianum information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Psidium cattleianum in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Psidium cattleianum information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Psidium cattleianum--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.

Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy (2000) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The status of invasive plants, vertebrates, arthropods, molluscs, and crustaceans, and options for a regional invasive species strategy for the South Pacific are presented in this series of articles from the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, 2000.

History of feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley: Chapter 4 from "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The history of the feral pig invasion of Kipahulu Valley is discussed in this section of Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation on feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley, Maui (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

Psidium cattleianum worldwide distribution from GISD (ISSG)
Worldwide distribution information about Psidium cattleianum is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Cited as invasive

Hawaii State DLNR/DOFAW cites Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae) as a weedy species used in horticulture
Strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum) is on Hawaii's Most Invasive Horticultural Plants list from the Hawaii State Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Forestry and Wildlife.


Cited as invasive (on a list)

2007 FLEPPC invasive plant list View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council's 2007 List of Invasive Plant Species focus includes adverse effects exotic pest plants have on Florida's biodiversity and plant communities.


Books

Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives)
Veitch, C.R. and M.N. Clout (eds.) . 2002. Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. vii + 414pp. ISBN: 2-8317-0682-3.

Hawaii's ferns and fern allies
Palmer, Daniel D. 2003. Hawaii's ferns and fern allies. Contribuition no. 2002-010 to the Hawaii Biological Survey. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. 324 pp. ISBN: 0-8248-2522-5.

Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide
Motooka, Philip, Luisa Castro, Duane Nelson, Guy Nagai, and Lincoln Ching. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (University of Hawaii--Manoa), Honolulu. 184 pp. color illus. ISBN: 1-929325-14-2.

Identification and biology of nonnative plants in Florida's natural areas (second edition)
Langeland, K.A., H.M. Cherry, C.M. McCormick, and K.A. Craddock Burks. 2008. Identification and biology of nonnative plants in Florida's natural areas (second edition). The University of Florida IFAS Communication Services (Gainesville). 193+ pp. illus. ISBN: 978-0-916287-70-2.


In the news

Despite its attractions, strawberry guava still a bully
Strawberry guava is tied to the local culture, but it is destroying the diversity of Hawaii's native forests (Star-Advertiser, 7/1/2010).

State declares war on strawberry guava trees (video)
Christy Martin from the Partnership to Protect Hawaiian Species discusses how the state plans to introduce a new insect to control the invasive strawberry guava tree (KITV 4, 07/01/2010, on YouTube).

Tree plan introduces bugs
Hawaii Department of Agriculture is again seeking approval to release a Brazilian scale insect into Hawaii forests to control the spread of the popular but environmentally destructive strawberry guava tree (Star-Advertiser, 6/23/2010).

Maui, Lanai need not share View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Invasives from Maui that could threaten Lanai are the topic of Maui Invasive Species Committee's Maui News column (6/14/2009).

Importing safe insects the only hope of saving Maui's native koa forests
Maui botanist Art Medeiros supports the introduction of the scale insect for strawberry guava biological control. His arguments are expressed in this Viewpoints article (Maui News, 11/2/2008).

Biocontrol precision is weapon against invaders View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Strawberry guava and biocontrol issues are reviewed in this second of a two part series from the Kiai Moku column of the Maui News (Lloyd Loope, 10/12/2008).

Strawberry guava sows seeds of infestation View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Strawberry guava's threat to our forests is the topic of the Maui Invasive Species Committee (MISC) Kiai Moku Maui News column (9/14/2008).

Strawberry guava biocontrol possible
The proposal to release a scale insect as a biocontrol for strawberry guava in Hawaii is discussed in the Raising Islands blog by Jan TenBruggencate (7/12/2008).

Strawberry guava biocontrol possible
The proposal to release a scale insect as a biocontrol for strawberry guava in Hawaii is discussed in the Raising Islands blog by Jan TenBruggencate (7/12/2008).

Controversy flares over proposal to control waiawi [strawberry guava] with scale insect View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
"The proposed release of a scale insect to control strawberry guava, or waiawi (Psidium cattleianum), has sparked an outcry of opposition among some sectors of the public. Yet, although the opposition means a delay in the scheduled release, the scientists most closely involved with the project say they welcome the development as an opportunity to educate the public about what they do and the ways in which their plan can work to the state's benefit."

Fact and fiction about waiawi [strawberry guava] control View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
"Opponents of the planned introduction of a biocontrol agent for strawberry guava have raised several arguments. Here are the top concerns, along with the responses from scientists with the Forest Service, the USDA Agricultural Research Service, and others...."

Invasive guava might meet its match
The proposed release of a biocontrol agent for strawberry guava in Hawaii is reported (Honolulu Star Bulletin, 5/23/2008).

Insect release proposed to control exotic strawberry guava View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
"U.S. Forest Service scientists with the Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry have submitted a proposal to release a Brazilian insect to control the spread of strawberry guava, a South American tree that has invaded and degraded native Hawaiían ecosystems since it was introduced in 1825 as a garden plant."

Self-feeding as a bad thing (Raising Islands Blog, 22 August 2007)
Invasive species like firetree (Myrica faya) and albizia Falcataria moluccana, which fix their own nitrogen, alter the characteristics of whole ecosystems. Bloggist Jan TenBruggencate reviews research on how "self-feeders" can facilitate the invasion of other alien species.

Bugs could slow strawberry guava
"Bugs could slow strawberry guava" discusses the possibility of releasing a biocontrol agent (Tectococcus ovatus) in Hawaii to slow the spread of the invasive strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum). Strawberry guava trees threaten the existence of many native ecosystems in Hawaii.

Fighting invasive species with biocontrol (Maui News, 5/29/2005)
The battle against some of the most destructive invasive species in Hawaii might be won only with the help of the biocontrol, the introduction of more species. Various experts comment on changing attitudes toward this method.


Full-text articles

Food and feeding habits of feral pigs: Chapter 6 from "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Stomach contents were analyzed to determine the feeding habits of feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley in this section of Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

Dispersal ecology of the strawberry guava: Chapter 7 from "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The synergy between feral pigs and strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum) is revealed in research on the dispersal mechanisms of strawberry guava in this section of Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

Phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal and predation, and seedling establishment of three invasive plant species in a Hawaiian rain forest
After rain forest of Haleakala National Park was fenced in the late 1980s, native vegetation responded vigorously yet three problematic plant invaders (Clidemia hirta, Hedychium gardnerianum, and Psidium cattleianum) continued to spread unabated and became of great concern to Park managers. This contribution provides a quantitative assessment of crucial life history junctures (quantitative phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal, seed predation, seedling establishment) to assist Haleakala NP and other managers of Hawaiian rain forests. It also provides detailed information for potentially identifying key characteristics in prevention, rapid response, and prioritization of incoming invasive species. (This document is the 2004 Ph.D. dissertation of Dr. Arthur C. Medeiros for the Department of Zoology at the University of Hawaii.)

Control of invasive alien weeds averts imminent plant extinction (citation)
Strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum) is covered in this article on alien weeds from Biological Invasions (2011).

A test of four herbicides for use on strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) in Kipahulu Valley, Haleakala National Park
Pratt, Linda W., Gregory L. Santos, and Charles P. Stone. 1994. A test of four herbicides for use on strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) in Kipahulu Valley, Haleakala National Park. Technical report 90. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research
Stone, Charles P., Clifford W. Smith, and J. Timothy Tunison (eds.) . 1992. Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit. ISBN: 0-8248-1474-6.

Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy
South Pacific Regional Environmental Programme (SPREP). Sherley, Greg (ed.) . 2000. Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. Apia, Samoa: South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. ISBN: 982-04-0214-X.

Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives)
Veitch, C.R. and M.N. Clout (eds.) . 2002. Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. vii + 414pp. ISBN: 2-8317-0682-3.

A test of four herbicides for use on strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) in Kipahulu Valley, Haleakala National Park
Pratt, L.W., G.L. Santos, and C.P. Stone. 1994. A test of four herbicides for use on strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) in Kipahulu Valley, Haleakala National Park. PCSU technical report #90 (June 1994).

Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide
Motooka, Philip, Luisa Castro, Duane Nelson, Guy Nagai, and Lincoln Ching. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (University of Hawaii--Manoa), Honolulu. 184 pp. color illus. ISBN: 1-929325-14-2.

Assessing the risks of plant invasions arising from collections in tropical botanical gardens
Dawson, Wayne, Ahmed S. Mndolwa, David F. R. P. Burslem, and Philip E. Hulme. 2008. Assessing the risks of plant invasions arising from collections in tropical botanical gardens. Biodiversity Conservation. Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

Annotated bibliography of the genus Psidium, with emphasis on P. cattleianum (strawberry guava) and P. guajava (common guava), forest weeds in Hawai'i
Ellshoff, Zella E., Donald E. Gardner, Charles Wikler, and Clifford W. Smith. 1995. Annotated bibliography of the genus Psidium, with emphasis on P. cattleianum (strawberry guava) and P. guajava (common guava), forest weeds in Hawai'i. PCSU technical report 95 (May 1995). Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

Phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal and predation, and seedling establishment of three invasive plant species in a Hawaiian rain forest
Medeiros, A.C. 2004. Phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal and predation, and seedling establishment of three invasive plant species in a Hawaiian rain forest. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Zoology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu.

Revised List of Hawaiian Names of Plants Native and Introduced with Brief Descriptions and Notes as to Occurrence and Medicinal or Other Values
Gon III, Samuel M. Ohukaniohia. 2008. Revised List of Hawaiian Names of Plants Native and Introduced with Brief Descriptions and Notes as to Occurrence and Medicinal or Other Values, by Joseph F. Rock Consulting Botanist, Board of Agriculture and Forestry Honolulu, Hawaii, 1920; transcribed and annotated by Samuel M. Ohukaniohia Gon III. Ethnobotany Research & Applications 6:405-442.

Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii
Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds.) . 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages.

Biological control potential of Miconia calvescens using three fungal pathogens
Killgore, Eloise M. 2002. Biological control potential of Miconia calvescens using three fungal pathogens. pp. 45-52 in Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds). 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages. from http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/duffy/techr/129.pdf accessed 16 March 2008.

Forest pest biological control program in Hawaii
Smith, Clifford W. 2002. Forest pest biological control program in Hawaii. pp. 91-98 in Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds). 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages. from http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/duffy/techr/129.pdf accessed 16 March 2008.

Strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum): prospects for biological control
Smith, Clifford W. and Charles Wikler. 2002. Strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum): prospects for biological control. pp. 108-116 in Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds). 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages. from http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/duffy/techr/129.pdf accessed 16 March 2008.

Biological control of invasive plants in native Hawaiian ecosystems (synthesis and conclusions)
Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight. 2002. Biological control of invasive plants in native Hawaiian ecosystems (synthesis and conclusions). pp. 117-122 in 2002. Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight. pp. 117-122 in Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds). 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages. from http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/duffy/techr/129.pdf accessed 16 March 2008.

Introductions for biological control in Hawaii 1997-2001
Culliney, Thomas W., Walter T. Nagamine, and Kenneth K. Teramoto. 2003. Introductions for biological control in Hawaii 1997-2001. Proc. Hawaiian Entomol. Soc. (2003) 36:145-153.

Current researches of Brazilian weeds in Paraná State - Biological control of weeds program, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
A review of the biological control program at Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil, is presented.


Presentations

Jumping the fence: Ways of dealing with invasive plants in landscaping View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Strategies for avoiding invasives in landscaping, including voluntary codes of conduct among landscapers, and developing seedless varieties and tetraploids, are in this presentation from University of Hawaii.


Experts

Psidium cattleianum contacts from GISD (ISSG)
Contact information for experts on Psidium cattleianum as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Other resources

A test of four herbicides for use on strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) in Kipahulu Valley, Haleakala National Park
Pratt, L.W., G.L. Santos, and C.P. Stone. 1994. A test of four herbicides for use on strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) in Kipahulu Valley, Haleakala National Park. PCSU technical report #90 (June 1994).

Distribution and Spread of Alien Plants in Kipahulu Valley, Haleakala National Park, above 2,300 ft Elevation View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
A baseline survey based on a network of 20 transects and 400 plots provides information on alien plant distribution during feral pig removal and prior to alien plant control efforts in Kipahulu Valley, Maui (from Alien Plant Invasions in Native Ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and Research, 1992, 39 pp).

Psidium cattleianum references from GISD (ISSG)
References regarding Psidium cattleianum as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


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The Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR) is currently funded by grants from the Hau'oli Mau Loa Foundation and the U.S. Forest Service with support from PCSU (UH Manoa). Historically, HEAR has also received funding and/or support from the Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), PIERC (USGS), the USFWS, HCSU (UH Hilo), and HALE (NPS).

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