Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Psidium cattleianum
Sabine, Myrtaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 18 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Psidium cattleyanum Sabine; Psidium littorale Raddi var. longipes (O. Berg) Fosb.; Psidium littorale Raddi

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: cao mei fan shi liu

English: Cattley guava, cherry guava, Chinese cherry guava, Chinese guava, purple guava, purple strawberry guava, red strawberry guava, small guava, strawberry guava, yellow Cattley guava, yellow strawberry guava

Fijian: ngguava

French: goyave de Chine jaune, goyave de Chine rouge, goyavier, goyavier de Chine, goyavier-fraise

Hawaiian: waiawī ‘ula‘ula

Maori (Cook Islands): tū‘ava papa'ā, tuava papa'ā, tuava papa'ā, tūava papa'ā, tūava papa'ā, tūvava papa'ā

Pohnpeian: kuwahpa

Samoan: ku‘ava

Spanish: guayaba, guayabo pequeño

Tahitian: tuava popa'a, tuava tinito, tuvava tinito

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Shrubs or small trees 2-6 m tall; young branches terete, sparsely puberulent when young, soon glabrate.  Leaves aromatic, leathery, obovate to elliptic-obovate, 3.5-13.5 cm long, (2.5-) 3-6 cm wide, both surfaces with scarcely raised lateral veins, glabrous or glabrate, apex bluntly cuspidate, base attenuate to cuneate, petioles 5-10 mm long.  Flowers usually solitary in the leaf axils, peduncles 4-8 mm long; sepals ca. 4-5 mm long, persistent in fruit; petals white, obovate, ca. 5-7 mm long.  Berries red to purplish red or occasionally yellow, globose to obovoid or ellipsoid, glossy and smooth, 2-3 cm in diameter, the pulp white.  Seeds ca. 5 mm long, smooth"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 971).

"Evergreen shrub or slender tree 1-3 (-8) m high; branchlets cylindrical, smooth.  Leaves:  Dark green, glabrous, shiny, thick and leathery, veins not conspicuously impressed, long-tapering at the base.  Flowers:  White, ± 15 mm across, solitary.  Fruits:  Purplish-red berries, globose, cherry-sized, 20-30 mm long, flesh white, sweet"  (Henderson, 1995; p. 124).

"Arbuste à petit arbre de 2 à 6 m de hauteur, pouvant atteindre 10 m, reconnaissable à son écorce lisse brun-rosâtre, ses petites feuilles coriaces de couleur vert-foncé, à ses fleurs blanches solitaires et à ses fruits charnus et globuleux de couleur rouge à pourpre à maturité (parfois jaunes) et avec une pulpe blanchâtre contenant de nombreuses petites graines"  (Meyer, 2008; p. 33).

Habitat/ecology:  "Forests and forest openings, mountain slopes.  A thicket forming, shade tolerant tree that is able to invade intact and undisturbed rainforest.  It is fast growing and produces dense populations of root suckers and seedlings.  The dense foliage shades out all other plants.  The soil surface is often covered by mats of feeder roots.  The tree accumulates a large amount of litter that suppresses the establishment and growth of native tree seedlings"  (Weber, 2003; p. 348).  Tolerates shade and is a serious pest in both pastures and rain forests  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Favors moist or wet slopes. Produces dense thickets of small-stemmed plants. Density of stands and allelopathic characteristics inhibit other species. Strawberry guava is found in Hawai‘i between 150-1,300 m, principally in rain forest habitats (C. W. Smith, 1985; p. 200), and to 1000 m in French Polynesia.  In Fiji, "A locally naturalized shrub or small tree 2-6 m high occurring near sea level or at low elevations, usually in beach thickets"  (A. C. Smith, 1985; p. 308). In New Caledonia, "est peu cultivé mais parfois naturalisé" (MacKee, 1994; p. 106).  In Mauritius, "invading upland evergreen wet forest, lower montane forest and wet forest, including areas with low disturbance"  (Cronk & Fuller, 2001; p. 113).

Propagation:  Seeds and suckers. Fruits are dispersed by birds and pigs. Also reportedly spread by cattle (Welsh, 1989; p. 200).

Native range:  Eastern Brazil and northeastern Uruguay (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 207)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 20)
"Spread by cattle and birds, and growing so thickly that it crowds out any other plant". Vouchers cited: P.S. Green 2035 (K), A.C. Beauglehole 5838 (MEL), B. Conn 3572 (NSW)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Ziesing, P. (1997) (pp. 22-23)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 9)
Var. cattleianum "Spread by cattle and birds, and growing so thickly that it crowds out any other plant". Vouchers cited: P.S. Green 2413 (K), M. Lazarides 8024 (CANB, K), G. Uhe 1105 (K); var. littorale Vouchers cited: P.S. Green 2414 (K), W.R. Sykes NI 383 (CHR), W.R. Sykes 878/87 (CHR)
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (pp. 33-34, 43)
"Non citée par Zizka (1991), il y aurait « une seule plantation subsistant à Vaitea » (Lefeuvre et al., 2005; page 47)" (Meyer, 2008; p. 34).
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 495, 541, 556)
"En RC, está presente en varios jardines del pueblo de San Juan Bautista.  Es una especie peligrosa, de la misma familia que la luma endémica [Myrceugenia fernandeziana (Hook & Arn.) Johow], que debe ser vigilada muy de cerca y mantenida rigurosamente dentro de los jardines".
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 89)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 166373)
Taxon name on voucher: Psidium cattleianum Sabine
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 664840)
Taxon name on voucher: Psidium cattleianum Sabine
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 192)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
"Potential invader"
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 117)
Voucher cited: R. Lengsi 48 (NY)
Naturalized
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 308)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 1026, Smith 9509, Vaughan 3446a, DF 348 (Damanu 37), DA 9177 (MccKee 2741), DA 11464, DA 12510, DA 6035
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1943) (voucher ID: BISH 166402)
Taxon name on voucher: Psidium cattleianum Sabine
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 166403)
Taxon name on voucher: Psidium cattleianum Sabine
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 7331 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 546556)
Taxon name on voucher: Psidium cattleianum Sabine
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 6241)
Taxon name on voucher: Psidium cattleianum
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 82)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 200)
Vouchers cited: Moore 227, Florence 3310
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 8992 (PAP), J. Florence 11888 (PAP)
Naturalisée, Menace pour la biodiversité
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1993) (voucher ID: BISH 658365)
Taxon name on voucher: Psidium cattleianum Sabine
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 82)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 200)
Voucher cited: Florence 3310
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2301 (PAP), J. Florence 3310 (PAP), J. Florence 4485 (PAP)
Naturalisée. Menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 493562)
Taxon name on voucher: Psidium cattleianum Sabine
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 555129)
Taxon name on voucher: Psidium cattleianum Sabine
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 698734)
Taxon name on voucher: Psidium cattleianum Sabine
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 37693)
Taxon name on voucher: Psidium cattleianum Sabine
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 6237 (PAP), J. Florence 6320 (PAP), J. Florence 6336 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité,
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 493204)
Taxon name on voucher: Psidium cattleianum Sabine
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 493219)
Taxon name on voucher: Psidium cattleianum Sabine
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 493225)
Taxon name on voucher: Psidium cattleianum Sabine
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11136 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité,
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 643733)
Taxon name on voucher: Psidium cattleianum Sabine
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 971)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 971)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 971)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 971)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 971)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 971)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
invasive
Toyoda, Takeshi (2003) (p. 284)
Naturalized
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
As Psidium littorale Raddi
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 106)
Voucher cited: Däniker 3140 (Z)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 106)
Vouchers cited: Pancher s.n., Däniker 1167, MacKee 10002, Sévenet in MacKee 29765
Spontané
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1980) (voucher ID: PTBG 32374)
Taxon name on voucher: Psidium cattleianum
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 120)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R./West, C. J. (1996) (p. 456)
Subject of eradication program.
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 866)
"Cultivation escape in and around old orchards and to a limited extent in scrub along roadside and in indigenous forest".
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 192)
Reported present by Fosberg et al. (1979) but not seen by Space et al. (2003).
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 408)
Rare.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 104)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10751 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 643372)
Taxon name on voucher: Psidium cattleianum Sabine
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 10)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 28949)
Taxon name on voucher: Psidium cattleianum Sabine
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 192)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 192)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
As Psidium cattleyanum Sabine. Cultivated in Guangdong, Hainan and Yunnan.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 163)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 186)
As Psidium littorale Raddi
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 866)
"Cultivation escape in and around old orchards and to a limited extent in scrub along roadside and in indigenous forest".
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
As Psidium cattleyanum Sabine
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 125)
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Anjouan (Nzwani) Island introduced
invasive
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Grande Comore (Njazidja) Island introduced
invasive
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. (1991) (pp. 51-61)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Cultivé/Très envahissant"
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Lavergne, C. (2004) (p. 4)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Baret, Stephane/Rouget, Mathieu/Richardson, David M./Lavergne, Christophe/Egoh, Benis/Dupont, Joel/Strasberg, Dominique (2006) (p. 758)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, D./Sussman, R. W. (1988) (pp. 187-204)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Mauremootoo, J. (2004) (p. 6)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Rodrigues Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Mauremootoo, J. (2004) (p. 6)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
cultivated
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Potentiellement envahissant.
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 55)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
invasive
Weber, Ewald (2003) (p. 348)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  One of the worst invasive species in forests of Hawai‘i, Tahiti, La Réunion and Mauritius.

Found on Upolu, Samoa, at Malololelei on the cross-island road. This stand has been there for some time as the specimens are quite large (Space & Flynn, 2002).

Becoming quite common on Rarotonga, Cook Islands (Space & Flynn, 2002).

A potential threat on Pitcairn Island.  A few plants around one homestead (Pierre Binggeli, communication to Aliens listserver).

The fruit is a host to fruit flies (Motooka et al., 2003).

Control:  Control information from the Bugwood Wiki.

"La lutte manuelle par arrachage des plantules et la lutte chimique par pulvérisation sur les souches ou par injection dans les troncs d’un herbicide à base de triclopyr et/ou dicamba sont réalisables. Le déracinage des arbres est rendu difficile en raison de système racinaire traçant"  (Meyer, 2008; p. 34).

Physical:  Pull or dig out small plants. Leave on site to rot down"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).

Chemical: "Strawberry guava is sensitive to foliar, frill and cut-surface applications of triclopyr, dicamba, and 2,4-D, in descending order of efficacy. Glyphosate was ineffective over the long term although early defoliation was severe. Strawberry guava was also sensitive to basal bark applications of 2,4-D, picloram, and triclopyr. Where applications were made during dry days, conventional basal bark applications of triclopyr at 2 % and 2,4-D at 4 % of respective products were effective at Kokee. Thin line applications of triclopyr ester, 20 % product in diesel or crop oil, were effective. Thin line vertical applications to opposite sides of stems to 5 inches diameter was also effective.  HAVO staff controlled strawberry guava with triclopyr amine at 50% product in water applied to cut stumps or to frills (Chris Zimmer, HAVO).  Responses to soil applications of tebuthiuron and hexazinone were erratic, excellent to poor"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

"1. Cut down and paint stump (all year round): metsulferon-methyl 600g/kg (1g/L) or Tordon (100ml/L). 
2. Cut and squirt (all year round): Make 1 cut every 100 mm around trunk. Apply 1g metsulferon-methyl 600g/kg (made to a paste) or 10ml Tordon Brushkiller or triclopyr 600 EC undiluted to each cut.
3. Spray (all year round): metsulferon-methyl 600g/kg (5g/10L + penetrant) or Tordon Brushkiller (30ml/10L)"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).

Biological:  "Four insect species were found that have significant deleterious effects and, therefore, considerable potential. A leaf gall produced by Tectococcus ovatus Hempel (Homoptera, Eriococcidae) is the most promising due to the damage caused and the ease of handling. Bud galls, precocious developments of the bud that terminate shoot growth, are formed in response to Dasineura gigantea (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). A seed gall induced by Eurytoma psidii Thurbczy and Wikler, in ed. (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae) cements groups of seeds together and prevents germination of all seeds in the fruit. These latter two species have a significant impact but are more difficult to manipulate in quarantine. A shoot gall produced by Eurytoma cattleianii or Eurytoma desantisi (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae) terminates further growth of the shoot. The species are difficult to handle in the laboratory. The biological control potential of three additional species is discussed: a leaf gall formed in response to Neotrioza tavaresi (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) which, though species specific, has little impact on the plants; a sawfly, Haplostegus epimelas Konow (Hymenoptera, Pergidae) is unsuitable because it attacks commercial guava occasionally; and, a chrysomelid Lamprosoma azureum Germar (Coleoptera, Chrysomelldae) is not recommended because it attacks a number of myrtaceous species"  (Smith et al., 2002; p. 108).

Additional information:
Excerpt from the book "Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide" (Motooka et al., 2003). (PDF format).
Fact sheet on Psidium cattleianum on the web site of the Alien Plants Working Group, "Weeds Gone Wild".
Fact sheet from "Common forest trees of Hawaii" (PDF format).
Information on the "Environmental Bay of Plenty, New Zealand" web site.
Information from the Bugwood Wiki.
Information from the Purdue University NewCROP web site.
Information from the Global Invasive Species Database.
Information from the book "Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas" (PDF format).
Information sheet from Weedbusters New Zealand.
Article from "Wildland Weeds".

Additional online information about Psidium cattleianum is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Psidium cattleianum as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Psidium cattleianum may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John. 2011. Naturalized species in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile. Unpublished spreadsheet.

Baret, Stephane/Rouget, Mathieu/Richardson, David M./Lavergne, Christophe/Egoh, Benis/Dupont, Joel/Strasberg, Dominique. 2006. Current distribution and potential extent of the most invasive alien plant species on La Réunion (Indian Ocean, Mascarene islands). Austral Ecology (2006) 31, 747-758.

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 166373 (Wilder, G.P. 1018).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1943. Voucher specimen #BISH 166402 (Greenwood, W. 1026).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 166403 (Smith, A.C. 9509).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 28949 (Bristol, M.L. 2424).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 493562 (Florence, J. 2301).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 698734 (Florence, J. 3310).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 555129 (Florence, J. 4485).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1984. Voucher specimen #BISH 493204 (Florence, J. 6237).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1984. Voucher specimen #BISH 493219 (Florence, J. 6336).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1984. Voucher specimen #BISH 493225 (Florence, J. 6320).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1986. Voucher specimen #BISH 546556 (Florence, J. 7331).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1990. Voucher specimen #BISH 664840 (Sykes, W.R. 465558).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 643372 (Florence 10751).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 643733 (Florence 11136).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1993. Voucher specimen #BISH 658365 (Florence 11888).

Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. 2013. Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer (online resource).

Cronk, Q. C. B./Fuller, J. L. 2001. Plant invaders. Earthscan Publications, Ltd., London. 241 pp.

Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. 1998. Potential environmental weeds in Australia: Candidate species for preventative control. Canberra, Australia. Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia. 208 pp.

Délégation à l'Environnement/Délégation à Recherche. 2001. Les plantes envahissantes en Polynésie Française. French Polynesia. 2 p. folder.

Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido. 2006. Nouveau catalogue de la flore vaculaire de l'archipel Juan Fernández (Chile) [Nuevo catálogo de la flora vacular del Archipélago Juan Fernández (Chile)]. Acta Bot. Gallica 153(4):399-587.

Ellshoff, Zella E./Gardner, Donald E. /Wikler, Charles/Smith, Clifford W. 1995. Annotated bibliography of the genus Psidium, with emphasis on P. Cattleianum (strawberry guava) and P. Guajava (common guava), forest weeds in Hawai‘i. Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai‘i. Technical Report 95.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R. 1997. Preliminary checklist of the flowering plants and ferns of the Society Islands. Ed. by David R. Stoddart. U. Cal. Berkeley.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe. 1996. Conséquences des introductions d'espèces animales et végétales sur la biodiversité en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie) 51:375-401.

Henderson, Lesley. 1995. Plant invaders of Southern Africa. Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook No. 5, Agriculture Research Council, ARC/LNR, Pretoria, South Africa. 177 pp.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

Kato, Hidetoshi. 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium, Tokyo Metropolitan University. Personal communication.

Kueffer, C./Lavergne, C. 2004. Case studies on the status of invasive woody plant species in the western Indian Ocean. 4. R233;union. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Forestry Department, Forest Resources Division, Forest Resources Development Service, Working Paper FBS/4-4E. 37 pp.

Kueffer, C./Mauremootoo, J. 2004. Case studies on the status of invasive woody plant species in the western Indian Ocean. 3. Mauritius (islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Forestry Department, Forest Resources Division, Forest Resources Development Service, Working Paper FBS/4-3E. 35 pp.

Langeland, K. A./Burks, K. Craddock. eds. 1998. Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. 165 pp.

Lavergne, Christophe. 2006. List des especes exotiques envahissantes a La Reunion. Unpublished manuscript (Excel file). .

Little, Elbert L./Skolmen, Roger G. 1989. Common forest trees of Hawaii (native and introduced). USDA Agriculture Handbook 679. Washington, D.C. 377 pp. + plates.

Lorence, D./Sussman, R. W. 1988. Diversity, density, and invasion in a Mauritian wet forest. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Garden 25:187-204.

Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. 1991. Effects of alien plant invasions on native vegetation remnants on La Reunion (Mascarenes Islands, Indian Ocean). Environmental Conservation 18 (1):51-61.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

McCormack, Gerald. 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). In: Sherley, G. (tech. ed.). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. 190 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2008. Rapport de mission d'expertise a Rapa Nui du 02 au 11 Juin 2008: Plan d'action strategique pour lutter contre les plantes introduites envahissantes sur Rapa Nui (Île de pâques) [Strategic action plan to control invasive alien plants on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 62 pp. .

Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro. 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research 8(2)/2004: 171-191.

Motooka, Philip/Castro, Luisa/Nelson, Duane/Nagai, Guy/Ching, Lincoln. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa. 184 pp.

Motooka, Philip/Ching, Lincoln/Nagai, Guy. 2002. Herbicidal Weed Control Methods for Pasture and Natural Areas of Hawaii. Cooperative Extension Service, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawai‘i. CTAHR free publication WC-8.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1981. Voucher specimen #PTBG37693(Art Whistler W 4797).

Orchard, Anthony E., ed. 1994. Flora of Australia. Vol. 49, Oceanic islands 1. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Parham, B. E. V. 1972. Plants of Samoa. New Zealand Dept. of Scientific and Industrial Research Information Series No. 85, Wellington. 162 pp.

Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty]. 1984. Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for naturalists. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea. 638 pp. ISBN 9980-66-000-7.

Pickard, J. 1984. Exotic plants on Lord Howe Island: Distribution in space and time, 1853-1981. J. of Biogeography 11:181-208.

Pratt, Llinda/Santos, Greg/Stone, Charles. 1994. A test of four herbicides for use against strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) in Kipahulu Valley, Haleakala National Park. Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai'i, Department of Botany. Technical Report 90.

Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. 1983. Vegetation of Frégate Island, Seychelles. In: Sachet, M. H., D. R. Stoddart, and F. R. Fosberg. Floristics and ecology of Western Indian Ocean islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 273. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 253 pp.

Smith, Albert C. 1985. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 3. 758 pp.

Smith, Clifford W. 1985. Impact of Alien Plants on Hawai‘i's Native Biota. In: Stone, Charles P. and Scott, J. Michael, eds. Hawai‘i's terrestrial ecosystems: preservation and Management. Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii, Manoa.

Smith, Clifford W./ Denslow, Julie/ Hight, Stephen. 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawai‘i. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 146 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of Samoa on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 83 pp.

Swarbrick, J. T. 1997. Environmental weeds and exotic plants on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean: a report to Parks Australia. 101 pp. plus appendix.

Sykes, W. R. 1977. Kermadec Islands flora: an annotated checklist. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 219, Wellington. 216 pp.

Sykes, W. R./West, C. J. 1996. New records and other information on the vascular flora of the Kermadec Islands. New Zealand Journal of Botany 34:447-462.

Toyoda, Takeshi. 2003. Flora of the Bonin Islands. Aboc & Co. 522 pp.

U. S. Government. 2013. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) (on-line resource).

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. 2013. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

Vos, P. 2004. Case studies on the status of invasive woody plant species in the western Indian Ocean. 2. The Comoros Archipelago (Union of the Comoros and Mayotte). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Forestry Department, Forest Resources Division, Forest Resources Development Service, Working Paper FBS/4-2E. 34 pp.

Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. 2013. Flora of Micronesia. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. 1988. Flora of New Zealand, Volume IV: Naturalised pteridophytes, gymnosperms, dicotyledons. Botany Division, DSIR, Christchurch. 1365 pp.

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Ziesing, P. 1997. Norfolk Island weed control manual for selected weeds occurring in Norfolk Island National Park. Environment Australia, Norfolk Island.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 12 APR 2013.