Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR)

Erythrina sandwicensis
(Fabaceae)

HEAR home  >  species info  >  plants  >  Erythrina sandwicensis (Fabaceae)
(hints)
Featured items Species description or overview Taxonomy & nomenclature Cultural uses Pests of this species
Cultivation & propagation Images Distribution Where to see this species Books
In the news Full-text articles Other resources    

Let us know if you have suggestions for additional references to add to this page.

Featured items

Remnant wiliwili forest habitat at Wailea 670, Maui, Hawaii View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
"The Wailea 670 development proposal presents a situation in which a developer is proposing to destroy one of the largest remnants on Maui of a highly endangered Hawaiian ecosystem." "The southern 1/6 of the Wailea 670 is geologically distinct...an aa lava flow passed through there 10,000 years ago. Because of the unique soil properties of the aa flow, this portion of the property supports self-maintaining populations of 12 endemic species of Hawaiian plants, as well as 8 indigenous species." "The wiliwili trees (Erythrina sandwicensis) and other Hawaiian species found on the aa flow in Wailea 670 are remnants of low-elevation Hawaiian dryland forest. This habitat is one of the most highly endangered ecosystems in the United States. Fully 95% of this ecosystem has been destroyed by fire and cattle. The surviving 5% of this ecosystem on Maui occur mainly on recent (4000-10000 year old) aa lava flows, which keep the vegetation sparse enough to survive fires in the surrounding areas, and prevent suffocation by invasive alien grasses."


Species description or overview

Wiliwili (Erythrina sandwicensis) information from Wikipedia
Taxonomy, threats, and hula chant are in the Wikipedia article on wiliwili.

Erythrina sandwicensis information from Native Plants Hawaii
Information about Erythrina sandwicensis--including details regarding plant, flower, and leaf characteristics; pests and diseases; growth requirements; and environment--is provided by Native Plants Hawaii.

Wiliwili (Erythrina sandwicensis) overview from the National Tropical Botanical Garden
The taxonomy, distribution, and role of wiliwili in legend are included on this site from NTBG.

Erythrina sandwicensis - Unique Hawaiian nitrogen fixing tree
Erythrina sandwicensis (wiliwili) description, silviculture, and microsymbionts are provided.

Erythrina sandwicensis information from "Common forest trees of Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Information about Erythrina sandwicensis is presented with respect to this species being a forest tree in Hawaii. The information on this site is from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) 1989 publication by Little and Skolmen entitled "Common forest trees of Hawaii (native and introduced)."

Erythrina sandwicensis information from NTBG
Information about Erythrina sandwicensis is available from the National Tropical Botanical Garden (NTBG).

Erythrina sandwicensis information from NTBG
Information about Erythrina sandwicensis is available from the National Tropical Botanical Garden (NTBG).

Erythrina sandwicensis information from NTBG
Information about Erythrina sandwicensis is available from the National Tropical Botanical Garden (NTBG).


Taxonomy & nomenclature

GRIN nomenclature info for Erythrina sandwicensis
Nomenclatural information about Erythrina sandwicensis is provided by USDA/ARS/NGRP/GRIN.

Erythrina sandwicensis information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Erythrina sandwicensis--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.

Erythrina sandwicensis information from ITIS
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS provides authoritative taxonomic information on Erythrina sandwicensis, as well as other plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

IPNI nomenclature info for Erythrina sandwicensis
Nomenclatural information about Erythrina sandwicensis is provided by The International Plant Names Index (IPNI).


Cultural uses

Wiliwili (Erythrina sandwicensis) information from Wikipedia
Taxonomy, threats, and hula chant are in the Wikipedia article on wiliwili.

Hawaiian use of native plants (p. 6 of 7)
Hawaiian uses of some native Hawaiian plants are summarized here.


Pests of this species

HDOA releases biocontrol insect to control gall wasp
The release of the parasite Eurytoma erythrinae to control the erythrina gall wasp is announced by the Hawaii Department of Agriculture. An overview of the process is presented (11/25/2008).

Tiny wasp may kill off native trees
"Keeping tabs on invasive species" is a Honolulu Advertiser article concerning invasive species problems in Hawaii, and some groups that are doing something about them.

Wiliwili on Maui: threatened by the Erythrina gall wasp
Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR); webmaster: Philip A. Thomas

Erythrina gall wasp View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
"One of the latest invaders reported on April 19, 2005 is the Erythrina Gall Wasp, Quadrastichus erythrinae. As its name implies, it attacks Erythrina also known as Wiliwili or the Indian Coral Trees." Erythrina Gall Wasp.

Management of the invasive Erythrina gall wasp, Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) on native and landscape Erythrina View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Chemical methods for controlling the Erythrina gall wasp are summarized in this final research report from University of Hawaii entomologist Arnold H. Hara (2007)

Update on control of the Erythrina gall wasp View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Chemical and biological management of the Erythrina gall wasp and alternative species for landscape are reviewed in this presentation from the University of Hawaii (2008).

Wiliwili preservation at the D.T. Fleming Arboretum at Puu Mahoe, Maui
Native wiliwili (Erythrina sandwicensis) trees are protected from the Erythrina gall wasp by regular injections of the pesticide "Merit".

Quadrastichus erythrinae (Eulophidae): species information from HEAR
Categorized information about Quadrastichus erythrinae (Eulophidae) is presented by the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Saving the wiliwili: A tiny wasp from Tanzania may be the last, best hope for one of Hawaii's most important native trees
Images and description of the impacts of the erythrina gall wasp on native wiliwili trees on Maui, and the release of the biocontrol wasp, are from Maui Magazine (March, 2010).


Cultivation & propagation

Erythrina sandwicensis (wiliwili) propagation and cultivation (UH/CTAHR)
Wiliwili propagation by scarified seed, cuttings, and air layer is reviewed in the Hawaiian Native Plant Propagation Database from the University of Hawaii College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources.

Erythrina sandwicensis information from Native Plants Hawaii
Information about Erythrina sandwicensis--including details regarding plant, flower, and leaf characteristics; pests and diseases; growth requirements; and environment--is provided by Native Plants Hawaii.

How to plant a native Hawaiian garden View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
An instructional handbook on planting a native Hawaiian garden was prepared by Office of Environmental Quality Control to guide the establishment of native gardens in schools throughout Hawaii to stimulate the awareness and appreciation of Hawaii's rare and fragile environmental resources (1992).

In the Garden: Wiliwili
Native wiliwili, with many cultural uses, is the topic of this Rick Barboza column (Honolulu Star-Bulletin Features, 1/17/2003).

Maui (planting zone 2) planting list (Maui County Department of Water Supply)
A list of recommended species for planting in "planting zone 2" is provided by the Maui County Department of Water Supply.

Maui (planting zone 3) planting list (Maui County Department of Water Supply)
A list of recommended species for planting in "planting zone 3" is provided by the Maui County Department of Water Supply.


Images

Images of Erythrina sandwicensis (Fabaceae) (wiliwili)
Links to high-resolution free images of Erythrina sandwicensis (Fabaceae) (wiliwili) by Forest & Kim Starr (USGS) are available here.

Erythrina sandwicensis information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Erythrina sandwicensis in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Images of wiliwili (Erythrina sandwicensis) from the University of Hawaii Department of Botany
Images of the wiliwili tree (Erythrina sandwicensis) are presented by the University of Hawaii's Department of Botany.

Erythrina sandwicensis images by Jupiter Nielsen
Images of Erythrina sandwicensis are provided online by Maui artist/photographer Jupiter Nielsen.

Erythrina sandwicensis images by Karl Magnacca
Images of Erythrina sandwicensis by Karl Magnacca are available online.


Distribution

Erythrina sandwicensis information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Erythrina sandwicensis in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Wiliwili (Erythrina sandwicensis) modelled historic range map
By-island maps of the modelled historic range of wiliwili (Erythrina sandwicensis) in Hawaii are presented online.

Erythrina sandwicensis information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Erythrina sandwicensis--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.


Where to see this species

A catalogue of Hawaiian native plants at the Na Pohaku o Hauwahine Restoration Project
Native Hawaiian plants are listed by species and family in this catalogue for the wetlands restoration project on Oahu.

Images of University of Hawaii campus plants (p. 10)
Images of some plants on the University of Hawaii's Manoa campus are presented here.

Koko Crater Botanical Garden
"Koko Crater Botanical Garden is a 60-acre basin inside the landmark Koko Crater on the eastern end of the island of Oahu. The hot, dry climate here makes this garden the ideal location for the dryland collections of the Honolulu Botanical Gardens."

Naturally occurring native species at Ka'upulehu (2003)
A list of naturally-occurring native species at Ka'upulehu is provided by the Hawaii Forest Industry Association.

A nature walk to Kaena Point
Arrigoni, Edward. 1978. A nature walk to Kaena Point. Honolulu: Topgallant Publishing Co., Ltd. ISBN: 0-914916-30-0.

Kahoolawe (Kanaloa): natural areas of Hawaii
Forest and Kim Starr provide information about the island of Kahoolawe as a natural area in Hawaii. Links to additional resources are provided, as well as links to images of plant species found on Kahoolawe.

Kaena Point natural area reserve ecosystem restoration project
The resources of Kaena, and threats to the wildlife, are depicted on this US Fish and Wildlife site.


Books

A nature walk to Kaena Point
Arrigoni, Edward. 1978. A nature walk to Kaena Point. Honolulu: Topgallant Publishing Co., Ltd. ISBN: 0-914916-30-0.


In the news

Saving the wiliwili: A tiny wasp from Tanzania may be the last, best hope for one of Hawaii's most important native trees
Images and description of the impacts of the erythrina gall wasp on native wiliwili trees on Maui, and the release of the biocontrol wasp, are from Maui Magazine (March, 2010).

HDOA releases biocontrol insect to control gall wasp
The release of the parasite Eurytoma erythrinae to control the erythrina gall wasp is announced by the Hawaii Department of Agriculture. An overview of the process is presented (11/25/2008).


Full-text articles

Remnant wiliwili forest habitat at Wailea 670, Maui, Hawaii View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
"The Wailea 670 development proposal presents a situation in which a developer is proposing to destroy one of the largest remnants on Maui of a highly endangered Hawaiian ecosystem." "The southern 1/6 of the Wailea 670 is geologically distinct...an aa lava flow passed through there 10,000 years ago. Because of the unique soil properties of the aa flow, this portion of the property supports self-maintaining populations of 12 endemic species of Hawaiian plants, as well as 8 indigenous species." "The wiliwili trees (Erythrina sandwicensis) and other Hawaiian species found on the aa flow in Wailea 670 are remnants of low-elevation Hawaiian dryland forest. This habitat is one of the most highly endangered ecosystems in the United States. Fully 95% of this ecosystem has been destroyed by fire and cattle. The surviving 5% of this ecosystem on Maui occur mainly on recent (4000-10000 year old) aa lava flows, which keep the vegetation sparse enough to survive fires in the surrounding areas, and prevent suffocation by invasive alien grasses."

Flowers, pollination, and ocean dispersal in coral trees (Erythrina)
Information about flowers, pollination, and ocean dispersal in coral trees (Erythrina) is provided online.

Kanaio Natural Area Reserve: biological inventory and management recommendations
Medeiros, Arthur C., Lloyd L. Loope, and C.G. Chimera. 1993. Kanaio Natural Area Reserve: biological inventory and management recommendations. Natural Area Reserve System, State of Hawaii.

Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research
Stone, Charles P., Clifford W. Smith, and J. Timothy Tunison (eds.) . 1992. Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit. ISBN: 0-8248-1474-6.


Other resources

Wiliwili (Erythrina sandwicensis) seed collection form (MS-Word format)
HEAR (www.hear.org)

Wiliwili (Erythrina sandwicensis) seed collection form (Acrobat/PDF format)
Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR)


PDF icon Some documents posted on the HEAR website are in Adobe Acrobat PDF format. If your computer is not already set up to read these files, you can download the FREE Adobe Acrobat reader. You can set up most web browsers to automatically invoke this reader (as a "helper application" or "add-in") upon encountering documents of this type (refer to your browser's documentation for how to do this). download Acrobat reader


The Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk (HEAR) project was historically funded by the Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) through PIERC (USGS) with support from HCSU (UH Hilo). More details are available online. Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII)

species lists  ]    [  plants  ]    [  HEAR home  ]

Comments?  Questions?  Send e-mail to: webmaster@hear.org

The content of this page is based on information last generated on 22 March 2017 by PT. The template for this page was created on 15 March 2004 by EMS, and was last updated on 20 February 2006 by PT. Valid HTML 4.01!