Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR)

Quadrastichus erythrinae
(Eulophidae)

 
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HEAR CLOSING      HEAR CLOSING      HEAR CLOSING

A message from Dr. David Duffy, Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (PCSU), University of Hawaii (posted 05 November 2012):

Because of a lack of funds, HEAR (www.hear.org) may close as soon as December 15, although there may be enough funds to extend it until February 15. This will mean several things. The web site will be placed on a new server although it is not clear who will pay for the server or for transitioning the site. HEAR data will not be updated. The Pacific Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) (http://www.hear.org/pier/abtproj.htm) site will also become frozen, as will numerous books, reports and papers (http://www.hear.org/). As software evolves we will likely lose the ability to access the data. The various list servers will need new owners, otherwise moderated lists will cease to function altogether, while other lists will not be able to add or delete members. The photo collection (http://www.hear.org/starr/images/?o=plants) will remain accessible, but only through a third party site that will charge for access.

I should point out that we have already lost the original homes of both the Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) and Pacific Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) although they have found temporary refuges. Together with HEAR, they represent the corporate memory both here in Hawaii and across the Pacific of efforts to sustain our natural ecosystems and agriculture against problems caused by species alien to the islands. HEAR also serves as the glue that holds the community together, providing information and facilitating communication. I just hope hindsight is kind to this decision.

PLEASE SEND YOUR COMMENTS/SUGGESTIONS TO webmaster@hear.org

Let us know if you have suggestions for additional references to add to this page.

The wasp has devastated exotic ornamental erythrina plantings. Its galls caused defoliation and eventual death to thousands of Indian coral trees, Erythrina variegata var. orientalis. The threat to native wiliwili (Erythrina sandwicensis) has been particularly alarming.  The erythrina gall wasp (Quadrastichus erythrinae) was discovered on Oahu in 2005, and quickly spread throughout Hawaii. 

Species description or overview

Quadrastichus erythrinae ecology
Quadrastichus erythrinae common names, description, habitat, uses, management, impacts and invasion pathways are provided by ISSG (Invasive Species Specialist Group).

Quadrastichus erythrinae description and ecology from GISD (ISSG)
A species description and information about the ecology of Quadrastichus erythrinae as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Taxonomy & nomenclature

Quadrastichus erythrinae information from ITIS
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS provides authoritative taxonomic information on Quadrastichus erythrinae, as well as other plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.


Pest alerts

Erythrina gall wasp (Quadrastichus erythrinae)
The erythrina gall wasp (Quadrastichus erythrinae) is the "pest focus" subject of an American Samoa Land Resources Division document (February 2006). "Unusual growths (galls) on leaves and young shoots of coral trees (Erythrina variegata and E. subumbrans) were observed on Tutuila Island, American Samoa, on 26 December 2005. The wasps that emerged from the galls were identified as Erythrina gall wasps (Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim) (Family Eulophidae) by John La Salle of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation of Australia. The wasps have since been found to be widespread on Tutuila Island but have not been detected on the other islands of the territory."

HDOA Erythrina gall wasp new pest advisory View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
An Erythrina gall wasp pest advisory has been issued by the Hawaii Department of Agriculture.

Erythrina gall wasp - new pest advisory View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Erythrina gall wasp's description, images, distribution, and impacts are in this pest advisory from the Hawaii Department of Agriculture.

Erythrina gall wasp in Florida (first report in continental U.S.): pest alert
Galls of the eulophid erythrina gall wasp, Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim 2004, were first collected in Florida by Edward Putland and Olga Garcia (Florida Department of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry) on Erythrina variegata L. in Miami-Dade County at the Miami Metro Zoo on October 15, 2006. The October [ed.: 2006] collection in Miami is the first record of this pest in the continental U.S. Initial limited survey has detected many suspect erythrina gall wasp-infested coral trees throughout Miami-Dade County. [HEAR ed.: excerpts from article]


Impacts

Wiliwili on Maui: threatened by the Erythrina gall wasp
Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR); webmaster: Philip A. Thomas

Quadrastichus erythrinae impacts
General and location specific impacts of Quadrastichus erythrinae are provided by ISSG (Invasive Species Specialist Group).

Dying trees cost $1M a year
This entry was automatically generated by the Paradox script ITISPLTS.SSL.

Quadrastichus erythrinae impact information from GISD (ISSG)
Impact information regarding Quadrastichus erythrinae as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).

Saving the wiliwili: A tiny wasp from Tanzania may be the last, best hope for one of Hawaii's most important native trees
Images and description of the impacts of the erythrina gall wasp on native wiliwili trees on Maui, and the release of the biocontrol wasp, are from Maui Magazine (March, 2010).


Control methods

Non-target evaluation of a promising natural enemy of the erythrina gall wasp (Quadrastichus erythrinae) (text not available)
This paper on promising biocontrol of erythrina gall wasp presented at the 2007 Entomological Society Meeting is not available.

Erythrina gall wasp - 2006 report
The Erythrina Gall Wasp Biocontrol Project was initiated in 2005 to identify potential biocontrol agents for the wasp. The Hawaii Department of Agriculture reports on efforts to collect promising parasitoid species.

Quadrastichus erythrinae management
General and location specific management information for Quadrastichus erythrinae is provided by ISSG (Invasive Species Specialist Group).

Erythrina gall wasp View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
"One of the latest invaders reported on April 19, 2005 is the Erythrina Gall Wasp, Quadrastichus erythrinae. As its name implies, it attacks Erythrina also known as Wiliwili or the Indian Coral Trees." Erythrina Gall Wasp.

Management of the invasive Erythrina gall wasp, Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) on native and landscape Erythrina View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Chemical methods for controlling the Erythrina gall wasp are summarized in this final research report from University of Hawaii entomologist Arnold H. Hara (2007)

Update on control of the Erythrina gall wasp View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Chemical and biological management of the Erythrina gall wasp and alternative species for landscape are reviewed in this presentation from the University of Hawaii (2008).

Wiliwili preservation at the D.T. Fleming Arboretum at Puu Mahoe, Maui
Native wiliwili (Erythrina sandwicensis) trees are protected from the Erythrina gall wasp by regular injections of the pesticide "Merit".

Google search for biocontrol information regarding the erythrina gall wasp
The latest erythrina gall wasp biocontrol information posted on the internet in the last six months is the result of this google search.

Quadrastichus erythrinae management information from GISD (ISSG)
Management information for Quadrastichus erythrinae as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).

Erythrina gall wasp (EGW) (Quadrastichus erythrinae) management information from ISSG/GISD
public domain


Biocontrol efforts

HDOA releases biocontrol insect to control gall wasp
The release of the parasite Eurytoma erythrinae to control the erythrina gall wasp is announced by the Hawaii Department of Agriculture. An overview of the process is presented (11/25/2008).

HDOA releases biocontrol insect to control gall wasp
About 500 Eurytoma erythrinae wasps, natural predators of the erythrina gall wasp, were released on Oahu by the Hawaii Department of Agriculture (HDOA) Plant Pest Control Branch (news release, HDOA 11/25/2008).

2006 Annual Report for Hawaii Department of Agriculture (HDOA) Plant Pest Control Branch View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
New insect introductions and projects involving invasive species are reviewed in Appendix IV of the 2006 HDOA annual report.

A new species of Eurytoma (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) attacking Quadrastichus spp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) galling Erythrina spp. (Fabaceae), with a summary of African Eurytoma biology and species checklist View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Eurytoma erythrinae Gates and Delvare, a new species, is described and illustrated.

Managing the Erythrina Gall Wasp problem in Hawaii with classical biological control (presentation) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
A presentation on the erythrina gall wasp problem in Hawaii and biocontrol agents is provided by the Hawaii Department of Agriculture. Excellent images and data are presented.

A new parasitoid of the erythrina gall wasp, Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Aprostocetus exertus La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described as a parasitoid of the invasive erythrina gall wasp, Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae). The description is based on material originally collected in Tanzania and South Africa. This species is described because of its potential as a biological control agent against the erythrina gall wasp.


Pests of this species

A new parasitoid of the erythrina gall wasp, Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Aprostocetus exertus La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described as a parasitoid of the invasive erythrina gall wasp, Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae). The description is based on material originally collected in Tanzania and South Africa. This species is described because of its potential as a biological control agent against the erythrina gall wasp.


Images

Erythrina gall wasp images
Damage caused by Erythrina gall wasp (EGW) and images of the wasp are provided by The Bugwood Network

Quadrastichus erythrinae images (Starr)
Images of Quadrastichus erythrinae (Eulophidae) (Erythrina gall wasp are provided by from Forest and Kim Starr.

Erythrina gall wasp image
EM image of Erythrina gall wasp and description are provided on this stock scientific photo site.

Images of erythrina gall wasp (EGW) (Quadrastichus erythrinae)
Images of erythrina gall wasp (EGW) (Quadrastichus erythrinae) and damage it causes are presented here.

Erythrina photo-monitoring on Maui
Some images of Erythrina trees at various locations on Maui are presented online as an attempt to aid in monitoring the progress of the "Erythrina gall wasp" (EGW), Quadrastichus erythrinae.


Distribution

Tree failure by suspected Erythrina gall wasps
An Erythrina variegata tree's fallen branch lead observers in China to suspect damage from the Erythrina gall wasp, which is prevalent in China and south Asia.

Erythrina gall wasp in Florida (first report in continental U.S.): pest alert
Galls of the eulophid erythrina gall wasp, Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim 2004, were first collected in Florida by Edward Putland and Olga Garcia (Florida Department of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry) on Erythrina variegata L. in Miami-Dade County at the Miami Metro Zoo on October 15, 2006. The October [ed.: 2006] collection in Miami is the first record of this pest in the continental U.S. Initial limited survey has detected many suspect erythrina gall wasp-infested coral trees throughout Miami-Dade County. [HEAR ed.: excerpts from article]

Erythrina gall wasp (EGW) (Quadrastichus erythrinae) reported in Thailand
Erythrina gall wasp (EGW) (Quadrastichus erythrinae) has now been reported from Thailand, according to this PESTNET posting.

EGW in Guam
Published as 1996

2005 Annual Report for Hawaii Department of Agriculture (HDOA) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Projects involving invasive species are reviewed in the 2005 HDOA annual report.

Quadrastichus erythrinae distribution
Quadrastichus erythrinae distribution records in alien ranges are available by country, from ISSG (Invasive Species Specialist Group).

Erythrina photo-monitoring on Maui
Some images of Erythrina trees at various locations on Maui are presented online as an attempt to aid in monitoring the progress of the "Erythrina gall wasp" (EGW), Quadrastichus erythrinae.

Erythrina gall wasp (EGW) (Quadrastichus erythrinae) distribution information from ISSG/GISD
Information about the worldwide distribution of the erythrina gall wasp (EGW) (Quadrastichus erythrinae) is available from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) (IUCN Invasive Species Specialist Group [ISSG]).

Quadrastichus erythrinae worldwide distribution from GISD (ISSG)
Worldwide distribution information about Quadrastichus erythrinae is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


In the news

Saving the wiliwili: A tiny wasp from Tanzania may be the last, best hope for one of Hawaii's most important native trees
Images and description of the impacts of the erythrina gall wasp on native wiliwili trees on Maui, and the release of the biocontrol wasp, are from Maui Magazine (March, 2010).

HDOA releases biocontrol insect to control gall wasp
The release of the parasite Eurytoma erythrinae to control the erythrina gall wasp is announced by the Hawaii Department of Agriculture. An overview of the process is presented (11/25/2008).

HDOA releases biocontrol insect to control gall wasp
About 500 Eurytoma erythrinae wasps, natural predators of the erythrina gall wasp, were released on Oahu by the Hawaii Department of Agriculture (HDOA) Plant Pest Control Branch (news release, HDOA 11/25/2008).

Bugs readied for eco-battle
The erythrina gall wasp, nettle caterpillar, and Madagascar fireweed are Hawaii pests that may be combatted by biocontrol agents if Hawaii receives federal approval for their release (Honolulu Advertiser, 5/11/2008).

Tackling the invasive species crisis in Hawaii View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
University of Hawaii College of Tropical Agriculture's strategies to combat various invasive species in Hawaii are reviewed (CTAHR Research News, Feb. 2008).

Tree failure by suspected Erythrina gall wasps
An Erythrina variegata tree's fallen branch lead observers in China to suspect damage from the Erythrina gall wasp, which is prevalent in China and south Asia.

Import ban to affect shipments to Hawaii florists
To prevent imports of the ohia diease Puccinia psidii, the Hawaii Department of Agriculture has banned plants from the Myrtaceae family from California, Florida and South America that could be disease hosts (Honolulu Advertiser, 9/6/2007).

Dying trees cost $1M a year
This entry was automatically generated by the Paradox script ITISPLTS.SSL.

Wasps head south; Queensland could be next
Erythrina gall wasps (EGW; Quadrastichus erythrinae) could threaten Australia, according to this Canberra Times article (03 September 2006).

Scientists step up battle to save wiliwili
Current efforts to manage erythrina gall wasp (Quadrastichus erythrinae) infestations in Hawaii are outlined in this Honolulu Advertiser news article.

Predatory wasp (Quadrastichus erythrinae) faces a determined battle (article)
"State botanists and entomologists are fighting to save native wiliwili and coral trees used in landscaping and agriculture from an introduced pest, the Erythrina gall wasp", reports the Honolulu Star-Bulletin (Dec. 3, 2005).

Alien wasp may doom the wiliwili, 8 August 2005
The discovery of the erythrina gall wasp on Maui in 2005 alarmed botanists and biologists concerned for native wiliwili stands (Maui News).

Tiny wasp may kill off native trees
"Keeping tabs on invasive species" is a Honolulu Advertiser article concerning invasive species problems in Hawaii, and some groups that are doing something about them.

Tiny wasp may kill off native trees
public domain


Full-text articles

Management of the invasive Erythrina gall wasp, Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) on native and landscape Erythrina View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Chemical methods for controlling the Erythrina gall wasp are summarized in this final research report from University of Hawaii entomologist Arnold H. Hara (2007)


Presentations

Update on control of the Erythrina gall wasp View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Chemical and biological management of the Erythrina gall wasp and alternative species for landscape are reviewed in this presentation from the University of Hawaii (2008).

Managing the Erythrina Gall Wasp problem in Hawaii with classical biological control (presentation) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
A presentation on the erythrina gall wasp problem in Hawaii and biocontrol agents is provided by the Hawaii Department of Agriculture. Excellent images and data are presented.


Experts

Quadrastichus erythrinae contacts
Quadrastichus erythrinae contacts provide information and advice (Invasive Species Specialist Group-ISSG).

Quadrastichus erythrinae contacts from GISD (ISSG)
Contact information for experts on Quadrastichus erythrinae as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Discussion forums

Erythrina gall wasp (EGW) (Quadrastichus erythrinae) e-mail discussion forum
An e-mail discussion forum RE: the erythrina gall wasp (EGW) (Quadrastichus erythrinae)--including online archives--is available for public subscription.


Other resources

Testimony of Lloyd Loope,  at Field Hearing on Invasive Species, U.S. Senate
Invasive threats to Hawaii's National Parks are reviewed in testimony to Senator Dan Inouye (8/9/2005).

References for Quadrastichus erythrinae
Quadrastichus erythrinae references are provided by ISSG (Invasive Species Specialist Group).

Wiliwili preservation at the D.T. Fleming Arboretum at Puu Mahoe, Maui
Native wiliwili (Erythrina sandwicensis) trees are protected from the Erythrina gall wasp by regular injections of the pesticide "Merit".

Quadrastichus erythrinae references from GISD (ISSG)
References regarding Quadrastichus erythrinae as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).

Erythrina gall wasp (EGW) (Quadrastichus erythrinae): references and links from ISSG/GISD
taxonomic nomenclature, ITIS, Operculina ventricosa


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The Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR) is currently funded by grants from the Hau'oli Mau Loa Foundation and the U.S. Forest Service with support from PCSU (UH Manoa). Historically, HEAR has also received funding and/or support from the Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), PIERC (USGS), the USFWS, HCSU (UH Hilo), and HALE (NPS).

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