Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR)

Kappaphycus alvarezii
(Solieriaceae)

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HEAR CLOSING      HEAR CLOSING      HEAR CLOSING

A message from Dr. David Duffy, Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (PCSU), University of Hawaii (posted 05 November 2012):

Because of a lack of funds, HEAR (www.hear.org) may close as soon as December 15, although there may be enough funds to extend it until February 15. This will mean several things. The web site will be placed on a new server although it is not clear who will pay for the server or for transitioning the site. HEAR data will not be updated. The Pacific Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) (http://www.hear.org/pier/abtproj.htm) site will also become frozen, as will numerous books, reports and papers (http://www.hear.org/). As software evolves we will likely lose the ability to access the data. The various list servers will need new owners, otherwise moderated lists will cease to function altogether, while other lists will not be able to add or delete members. The photo collection (http://www.hear.org/starr/images/?o=plants) will remain accessible, but only through a third party site that will charge for access.

I should point out that we have already lost the original homes of both the Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) and Pacific Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) although they have found temporary refuges. Together with HEAR, they represent the corporate memory both here in Hawaii and across the Pacific of efforts to sustain our natural ecosystems and agriculture against problems caused by species alien to the islands. HEAR also serves as the glue that holds the community together, providing information and facilitating communication. I just hope hindsight is kind to this decision.

PLEASE SEND YOUR COMMENTS/SUGGESTIONS TO webmaster@hear.org

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Kappaphycus alvarezii is a tough, fleshy, firm marine algae ("seaweed") up to 6 feet in length. Its coarse thalli (plural of thallus, a plant body that is not differentiated into root, stem or leaf) are approximately 1/2 inch in diameter. The thalli are heavy, with major axes relatively straight, lacking secondary branches near the tips. It is frequently and irregularly branched, most branches primary. Shiny green to yellow orange, it has a variable form, from a few small branches in shallow water to tangled and gnarled in deeper water, and it may be loosely attached to broken coral or floating, sometimes in large, moving mats. It typically occurs in waters 3 to 50 feet deep. Kappaphycus species are among the largest tropical red algae, with a high growth rate (can double in biomass in 15 to 30 days). It was thought until recently that their only method of dispersal was by vegetative fragmentation, which was thought to limit their expansion. Reproductive Kappaphycus has recently been found in Kaneohe Bay (Oahu). Kappaphycus species are among the largest tropical red algae, with a high growth rate (can double in biomass in 15 to 30 days). It was thought until recently that their only method of dispersal was by vegetative fragmentation, which was thought to limit their expansion. Reproductive Kappaphycus has recently been found in Kaneohe Bay (Oahu). 

Species description or overview

Kappaphycus alvarezii overview View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Taxonomy, images, description, ecology, impacts and distribution of Kappaphycus alvarezii are provided by University of Hawaii Botany Department.

Kappaphycus alvarezii: an invasive marine alga in Hawaii
Kappaphycus alvarezii: an invasive marine alga in Hawaii


Taxonomy & nomenclature

GRIN nomenclature info for Kappaphycus alvarezii
Nomenclatural information about Kappaphycus alvarezii is provided by USDA/ARS/NGRP/GRIN.

Kappaphycus alvarezii information from ITIS
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS provides authoritative taxonomic information on Kappaphycus alvarezii, as well as other plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

IPNI nomenclature info for Kappaphycus alvarezii
Nomenclatural information about Kappaphycus alvarezii is provided by The International Plant Names Index (IPNI).


Impacts

Kappaphycus spp. impact information from GISD (ISSG)
Impact information regarding Kappaphycus spp. as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).

Kappaphycus alvarezii: an invasive marine alga in Hawaii
Kappaphycus alvarezii: an invasive marine alga in Hawaii

Kappaphycus alvarezii (Solieriaceae): species information from GCW
Information on Kappaphycus alvarezii as relevant to Pacific Islands is provided by the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Bioinvasion of Kappaphycus alvarezii on corals in the Gulf of Mannar, India
Kappaphycus alvarezii is smothering coral in South India (Current Science, 2008, abstract).

Indian coral islands under threat from algae
Kappaphycus alvarezii imported by Pepsi Co. for the production of carrageen has become invasive and is killing coral in South India (Nature, 2008, abstract).

Abundance and spread of the invasive red algae, Kappaphycus spp., in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii and an experimental assessment of management options
Rapid spread of red algae is killing coral in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, and threatens reefs throughout Hawaii (Biological Invasions, 2005).


Control methods

Abundance and spread of the invasive red algae, Kappaphycus spp., in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii and an experimental assessment of management options
Rapid spread of red algae is killing coral in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, and threatens reefs throughout Hawaii (Biological Invasions, 2005).


Images

The use of native collector urchins to manage invasive seaweed on a patch reef in Kaneohe Bay
The project using sea urchins to control invasive algae in Kaneohe Bay is described, and images of the urchins and other aspects of the experiment are provided (Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, 8/17/2010).

Kappaphycus alvarezii information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Kappaphycus alvarezii in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Marine algae of Hawaii: red algae
Alien algae and corresponding competing native species are shown on this site from the University of Hawaii Botany Department.


Distribution

Kappaphycus alvarezii information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Kappaphycus alvarezii in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

(Kappaphycus) spp. overview from the Hawaii Invasive Species Council (HISC)
Kappaphycus: description, impacts, images, and distribution in Hawaii are from HISC's high-profile invasive pests site.


Books

Hawaiian Reef Plants
Huisman, John M., Isabella A. Abbott, and Celia M. Smith. 2007. Hawaiian Reef Plants. A publication of the University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program. Report no. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-BA-03-02. ISBN: 1-929054-04-1.


In the news

The use of native collector urchins to manage invasive seaweed on a patch reef in Kaneohe Bay
The project using sea urchins to control invasive algae in Kaneohe Bay is described, and images of the urchins and other aspects of the experiment are provided (Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, 8/17/2010).


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The Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR) is currently funded by grants from the Hau'oli Mau Loa Foundation and the U.S. Forest Service with support from PCSU (UH Manoa). Historically, HEAR has also received funding and/or support from the Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), PIERC (USGS), the USFWS, HCSU (UH Hilo), and HALE (NPS).

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