Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR)

Axis axis
(Cervidae)

axis deer

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HEAR CLOSING      HEAR CLOSING      HEAR CLOSING

A message from Dr. David Duffy, Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (PCSU), University of Hawaii (posted 05 November 2012):

Because of a lack of funds, HEAR (www.hear.org) may close as soon as December 15, although there may be enough funds to extend it until February 15. This will mean several things. The web site will be placed on a new server although it is not clear who will pay for the server or for transitioning the site. HEAR data will not be updated. The Pacific Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) (http://www.hear.org/pier/abtproj.htm) site will also become frozen, as will numerous books, reports and papers (http://www.hear.org/). As software evolves we will likely lose the ability to access the data. The various list servers will need new owners, otherwise moderated lists will cease to function altogether, while other lists will not be able to add or delete members. The photo collection (http://www.hear.org/starr/images/?o=plants) will remain accessible, but only through a third party site that will charge for access.

I should point out that we have already lost the original homes of both the Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) and Pacific Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) although they have found temporary refuges. Together with HEAR, they represent the corporate memory both here in Hawaii and across the Pacific of efforts to sustain our natural ecosystems and agriculture against problems caused by species alien to the islands. HEAR also serves as the glue that holds the community together, providing information and facilitating communication. I just hope hindsight is kind to this decision.

PLEASE SEND YOUR COMMENTS/SUGGESTIONS TO webmaster@hear.org

Let us know if you have suggestions for additional references to add to this page.


What's new?

State targets axis deer
The Hawaii State Department of Land and Natural Resources' Division of Forestry and Wildlife (DOFAW) and others confirmed sightings of an introduced, damaging large mammal--axis deer--on the Big Island in May 2011. DOFAW considers this development "serious problem with far-reaching economic and environmental impacts to the agriculture industry and native ecosystems on the island" and is expanding surveys of areas where deer have been reported and is developing a response and removal plan. Also included in this article is a section regarding Maui's struggles with impacts of axis deer.

DLNR takes steps to control new threats to agriculture, natural resources on Hawaii Island: Confirmed sightings of axis deer reported on Big Island View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Axis deer (Axis axis) are now confirmed to be present on Hawaii's Big Island. According to this 27 May 2011 news release, the Department of Land and Natural Resources' Division of Forestry and Wildlife (DOFAW) and a coalition of resource managers on Hawaii Island have confirmed recent sightings of an introduced, damaging large mammal--axis deer--in areas of the Big Island from Kohala, Kau, Kona, and Mauna Kea.


Species description or overview

Axis axis ecology (ISSG)
Overview of Axis axis ecology is from the Global Invasive Species Database managed by the Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).

Axis deer overview
Axis deer description and habits are from the The Mammals of Texas - Online Edition.

Axis deer (Axis axis): HEAR HNIS report View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The Global Compendium of Weeds provides worldwide citations of potential weediness of Haplophyllum perforatum.

Axis axis description and ecology from GISD (ISSG)
A species description and information about the ecology of Axis axis as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Taxonomy & nomenclature

Axis axis information from ITIS
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS provides authoritative taxonomic information on Axis axis, as well as other plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

Axis axis taxonomy (ISSG)
Taxonomy and nomenclatural information about Axis axis is provided by ITIS.


Impacts

Contraceptives won't solve deer problem
Complete removal of the relatively low numbers of axis deer from Hawaii island is considered a more effective strategy than controlling deer with contraceptives, (Star Advertiser, 6/10/2011).

Controlling ungulate populations in native ecosystems in Hawaii View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
"Controlling ungulate populations in native ecosystems in Hawaii" is a 2005 position paper presented by the Hawaii Conservation Alliance.

Axis axis impact information from GISD (ISSG)
Impact information regarding Axis axis as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).

Axis axis impacts (ISSG)
Impacts of Axis axis are reviewed by the Global Invasive Species Database managed by the Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Control methods

Controlling ungulate populations in native ecosystems in Hawaii View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
"Controlling ungulate populations in native ecosystems in Hawaii" is a 2005 position paper presented by the Hawaii Conservation Alliance.

Axis axis management information from GISD (ISSG)
Management information for Axis axis as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).

Contraceptives won't solve deer problem
Complete removal of the relatively low numbers of axis deer from Hawaii island is considered a more effective strategy than controlling deer with contraceptives, (Star Advertiser, 6/10/2011).


Videos

Axis deer at Makena
A herd of axis deer at the State Park at Makena, Maui, is video taped, with commentary (YouTube, 10/19/2007).

Axis deer at Makena II
Axis deer bucks at the State Park at Makena, Maui, are video taped, without commentary (YouTube, 3/28/2008).


Images

Axis deer images
Axis deer and their damage to native sandalwood


Distribution

State targets axis deer
The Hawaii State Department of Land and Natural Resources' Division of Forestry and Wildlife (DOFAW) and others confirmed sightings of an introduced, damaging large mammal--axis deer--on the Big Island in May 2011. DOFAW considers this development "serious problem with far-reaching economic and environmental impacts to the agriculture industry and native ecosystems on the island" and is expanding surveys of areas where deer have been reported and is developing a response and removal plan. Also included in this article is a section regarding Maui's struggles with impacts of axis deer.

Distribution of Axis axis (Cervidae) in the Hawaiian Islands as of 05/98
Karen H. Beard and Eric M. O'Neill

DLNR takes steps to control new threats to agriculture, natural resources on Hawaii Island: Confirmed sightings of axis deer reported on Big Island View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Axis deer (Axis axis) are now confirmed to be present on Hawaii's Big Island. According to this 27 May 2011 news release, the Department of Land and Natural Resources' Division of Forestry and Wildlife (DOFAW) and a coalition of resource managers on Hawaii Island have confirmed recent sightings of an introduced, damaging large mammal--axis deer--in areas of the Big Island from Kohala, Kau, Kona, and Mauna Kea.

Axis axis distribution (ISSG)
Countries or areas with distribution records for Axis axis in the Global Invasive Species Database are listed.

Axis deer home range, movements, and survival at Kalaupapa, Molokai (citation)
The citation for the unpublished axis deer report to the National Park Service, Kalaupapa National Historic Monument, is from the HEAR bibliography site.

Axis axis worldwide distribution from GISD (ISSG)
Worldwide distribution information about Axis axis is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Books

Mammals in Hawaii, second edition
Tomich, P. Quentin. 1986. Mammals in Hawaii, second edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Special Publication 76. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press. 375 pp. ISBN: 0-93087-10-2.


In the news

Contraceptives won't solve deer problem
Complete removal of the relatively low numbers of axis deer from Hawaii island is considered a more effective strategy than controlling deer with contraceptives, (Star Advertiser, 6/10/2011).

State targets axis deer
The Hawaii State Department of Land and Natural Resources' Division of Forestry and Wildlife (DOFAW) and others confirmed sightings of an introduced, damaging large mammal--axis deer--on the Big Island in May 2011. DOFAW considers this development "serious problem with far-reaching economic and environmental impacts to the agriculture industry and native ecosystems on the island" and is expanding surveys of areas where deer have been reported and is developing a response and removal plan. Also included in this article is a section regarding Maui's struggles with impacts of axis deer.

Axis deer on Hawaii island pose problem for state
the presence of axis deer across the island, including in Kohala, Kau, Kona and Mauna Kea.

DLNR takes steps to control new threats to agriculture, natural resources on Hawaii Island: Confirmed sightings of axis deer reported on Big Island View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Axis deer (Axis axis) are now confirmed to be present on Hawaii's Big Island. According to this 27 May 2011 news release, the Department of Land and Natural Resources' Division of Forestry and Wildlife (DOFAW) and a coalition of resource managers on Hawaii Island have confirmed recent sightings of an introduced, damaging large mammal--axis deer--in areas of the Big Island from Kohala, Kau, Kona, and Mauna Kea.

Confirmed sightings of axis deer reported on Big Island
As of 27 May 2011, the Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources' Division of Forestry and Wildlife (DOFAW) and a coalition of resource managers on Hawaii Island have confirmed recent sightings of an introduced, damaging large mammal--axis deer--in areas of Kohala, Kau, Kona and Mauna Kea.

As numbers spiral out of control, experts SETTING SIGHTS on spotted axis deer
Spotted axis deer populations are exploding on Maui, and difficulties controlling them are reported in The Maui News (9/27/2009).

Making hunting pono--save Hawaii's native creatures
The Honolulu Star-Bulletin (http://starbulletin.com)


Full-text articles

Kanaio Natural Area Reserve: biological inventory and management recommendations
Medeiros, Arthur C., Lloyd L. Loope, and C.G. Chimera. 1993. Kanaio Natural Area Reserve: biological inventory and management recommendations. Natural Area Reserve System, State of Hawaii.

Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research
Stone, Charles P., Clifford W. Smith, and J. Timothy Tunison (eds.) . 1992. Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit. ISBN: 0-8248-1474-6.

Axis deer home range, movements, and survival at Kalaupapa, Molokai (citation)
The citation for the unpublished axis deer report to the National Park Service, Kalaupapa National Historic Monument, is from the HEAR bibliography site.


Experts

Axis axis contacts from GISD (ISSG)
Contact information for experts on Axis axis as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).

Axis axis experts (ISSG)
Contact information for expert advice on Axis axis is listed on the Global Invasive Species Database managed by the Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Other resources

Rare Hawaii
The Rare Hawaii website highlights the severe impacts of feral mammals (e.g., pigs, goats, deer, sheep) on native ecosystems of Hawaii.

Axis axis references from GISD (ISSG)
References regarding Axis axis as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).

Axis axis references (ISSG)
References and links for Axis axis are provided by the Global Invasive Species Database managed by the Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).

Axis deer overview
Axis deer description and habits are from the The Mammals of Texas - Online Edition.


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The Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR) is currently funded by grants from the Hau'oli Mau Loa Foundation and the U.S. Forest Service with support from PCSU (UH Manoa). Historically, HEAR has also received funding and/or support from the Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), PIERC (USGS), the USFWS, HCSU (UH Hilo), and HALE (NPS).

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