Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Sorghum bicolor
(L.) Moench, Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

Evaluate, score: 5 (Go to the risk assessment (Australia))
Low risk (based on second screen), score: 6 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific)).
High risk (ssp. drummondii), score: 17.5 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific)).
Reject (grain sorghum), score: 7 (Go to the risk assessment (U.S. (Florida))).
Reject (shattercane), score: 18 (Go to the risk assessment (U.S.(Florida))).
Accept (sweet) (based on second screen), score: 3 (Go to the risk assessment (U.S.)).
Accept (sweet) (based on second screen), score: 2 (Go to the risk assessment (U.S. (Florida))).

Other Latin names:  Holcus bicolor L.; Sorghum bicolor nothosubsp. drummondii; Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: gao liang

English: broom corn, durra, forage sorghum, gooseneck sorgho, grain sorghum, great millet, Kaffir-corn, milo, shallu, shattercane, sweet sorghum, wildcane

French: gros mil, sorgho, sorgho vulgaire

Maori (Cook Islands): tarapi

Marshallese: korn

Spanish: daza, maiz milo, mijo, millo, sorgo, sorgo forrajero

Tongan: kola

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Annual with broad blades up to 30-60 cm long, 4-8 cm wide; the midrib prominent and pale; panicle stiffly erect; sessile spikelets broadly obovate 4-5.5 mm long, 3-4.5 mm wide, subglobose at maturity; upper lemma awned; glumes coriaceous; caryopsis plump, about 4 mm long, barely as broad, yellow to orange or reddish, exposed distally."  (Stone, 1970)"Robust annuals; culms 10-30 dm tall, nodes puberulent to short-pilose.  Sheaths glabrous, compressed, keeled; ligule chartaceous, 1.5-5.5 mm long, apex rounded, ciliate; blades flat, (12-) 20-40 (-52) mm wide, midrib well-developed, margins scabrous.  Panicles dense and compact, 10-25 (-35) cm long, branches numerous, ascending to appressed, pilose, angled, the angles keeled, winged, ciliate; sessile spikelet broadly ovate, 4-6 (-6.5) mm long, apex acute, glumes subequal, first glume glossy black, rounded, usually appressed hirsute, nerves 9-11, the nerves prominent at apex, second glume narrower, slightly keeled, 3-nerved at apex, first floret sterile, the lemma 3.8-5 mm long, hyaline, faintly nerved, margins ciliate, apex acute, second floret perfect, the lemma 3.9-4.3 mm long, hyaline, apex bifid, fimbriate, bearing a geniculate awn 5-8.5 (-11) mm long, terminal segment of awn short, 2-4 mm long, twisted in lower part, the palea 2.5-3 mm long, hyaline, nerveless, long-ciliate; pedicellate spikelets usually sterile, rarely staminate, narrowly lanceolate, 3.8-5 (-6) mm long, pedicel 0.7-2 mm long, with hairs 0.5-0.7 mm long, glumes subequal, first glume 9-11-nerved, flat to sulcate on back, clasping second glume, the second glume narrow, 3-nerved, appressed hirsute near the margins, lemma and palea 5-6 mm long, hyaline, faintly nerved, margins longciliate.  Caryopsis reddish brown to dark brown, spreading the glumes apart at maturity, broadly ovoid to globose, ca. 4 mm long, ca. 3.5 mm wide, somewhat dorsiventrally compressed, styles persistent" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1594).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "Occasionally cultivated, sparingly naturalized in Guam" (Stone, 1970; p. 239).  In Hawai‘i, "cultivated and sparingly naturalized along roadsides and in abandoned fields, 20-110 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1594).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Northern Africa.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1990) (voucher ID: PTBG 9110)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum sudanense
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 59-60)
Varieties cafer Fosb. & Sachet and rotundulum (Snowden) Fosb. & Sachet
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 93-96)
Voucher cited: Evans 2223 (US); var. rotundulum (Snowden) Fosberg & Sachet; voucher cited: Hosaka 3049 (US, BISH)
Persisting from cultivation.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 59-60)
Varieties cafer Fosb. & Sachet and subglobosum (Hack.) Snowden
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 93-96)
Voucher cited: Herbst & Falanruw 6807 (US); var. subglobosum (Hack.) Snowden; voucher cited: Fosberg 24939 (US, BISH)
Persisting from cultivation
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 59-60)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 93-96)
var. rotundulum (Snowden) Fosberg & Sachet; voucher cited: ar. rotundulum (Snowden) Fosberg & Sachet; voucher cited: Fosberg & Pelzer 26020 (US, BISH, MO, BRI, L)
Persisting from cultivation
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 59-60)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Woleai Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 59-60)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Woleai Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 93-96)
var. rotundulum (Snowden) Fosberg & Sachet; voucher cited: ar. rotundulum (Snowden) Fosberg & Sachet; voucher cited: Wong 7 (US)
Persisting from cultivation
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 59-60)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 93-96)
var. rotundulum (Snowden) Fosberg & Sachet; voucher cited: ar. rotundulum (Snowden) Fosberg & Sachet; voucher cited: ar. rotundulum (Snowden) Fosberg & Sachet; voucher cited: Wong 520 (US)
Persisting from cultivation
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 376)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Sorghum sudanense (C.V. Piper) O. Stapf.
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Sorghum sudanense (C.V. Piper) O. Stapf.
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Welsh, S. L. (1998)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 345)
Voucher cited: Moore 732
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Sorghum cf. sudanense. Voucher cited: J. Florence 3509 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 106)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Sorghum sudanense (C.V. Piper) O. Stapf. Voucher cited: J. Florence 10606 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 345)
Voucher cited: Florence 2810
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Sorghum sudanense (C.V. Piper) O. Stapf.
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Sorghum sudanense (C.V. Piper) O. Stapf.
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 239)
Sparingly naturalized.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 59-60)
Varieties cafer Fosb. & Sachet and subglabrescens (Steud.) Fosb. & Sachet
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 93-96)
Vouchers cited: Sachet 1715 (US, BISH), McGregor 513 (US); var. subglabrescens (Steud.) Fosberg & Sachet; voucher cited: Stone 4753 (GUAM)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1594)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1594)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 22)
West Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H110004 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2006) (p. 39)
East Maui. Vouchers cited: Starr & Starr 040501-1 (BISH), Starr, Starr & Fukada 040505-2 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1594)
Voucher cited: Mann & Brigham 389 (BISH)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 59-60)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 93-96)
Var. obbovatum (Hack.) Fosberg & Sachet; vouchers cited: Fosberg 24383 (US,BISH, POM, MO, K, CANB, NY, L), Taylor 46-1305 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1960) (p. 323)
Voucher cited: Taylor 46-1305
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 4)
Var. obbovatum; voucher cited: Fosberg 24383 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 59-60)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 93-96)
Var. rotundulum (Snowden) Fosberg & Sachet; voucher cited: Fosberg 26705 (US, BISH, K, CANB, POM, MO)
Persisting from cultivation
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1962) (p. 6)
Vouchers cited: St. John (BISH), Fosberg 26705 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 59-60)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 53)
Rare and probably extirpated.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 93-96)
Var. rotundulum (Snowden) Fosberg & Sachet; voucher cited: Fosberg 26932 (US, BISH, POM, BRI, L)
Persisting from cultivation
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
var. rotundulum (Snowden) Fosberg & Sachet
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 62)
Voucher cited: MacKee 23721
Spontané
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 251)
Incorrect as Sorghum halepense per Sykes, pers. com. Vouchers cited: CHR 168734, CHR 168735, CHR 168754
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 24)
Incorrect as Sorghum halepense per Sykes, pers. com. Voucher cited: Yuncker 9723 (BISH). Also as Sorghum vulgare Pers., voucher cited: Yuncker 9878.
"Occasional in waste areas and on rocky cliffs near the sea".
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 59-60)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 48)
As Andropogon sorghum (Linn.) Brot. Cultivated but not established.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 135)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 24)
Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf in rain; vouchers cited: Ross 42, R. A. Young 10, Fosberg & B. Christian 11224
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Sorghum sudanense (C.V. Piper) O. Stapf.
Adventice
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
?
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Late Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1981) (p. 352)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 59-60)
?
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 12)
As Sorghum sudanense (=Sorghum bicolor ssp. drommondii). Cette grande herbacée est localement naturalisée en bordure de routes et de pistes, et de zones cultivées.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 135)
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 135)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 348)
Also as Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf [= Sorghum bicolor nothosubsp. drummondii]
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 135)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 610)
"Cultivated ground, crops (often asparagus or maize), roadsides, railway lines".
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 128)
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 38)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Maldive Islands   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 12)

Comments:  A similar species, Sorghum arundinaceum (Desv.) Stapf., was found on Niue (at the end of the airport runway and other locations) (Space & Flynn, 2000).

Includes var. cafer (Koern.) Fosb. & Sachet, var. obovatum (Hack.) Fosb. & Sachet, var. rotundulum (Snowden) Fosb. & Sachet, var. subglabrescens (Steud.) Fosb. & Sachet, var. subglobosum (Hack.), var. technicum (Koern.) Stapf ex Holland and var. transiens (Hack.) Fosb. & Sachet.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 6 DEC 2010.