Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Sorghum arundinaceum
(Desv.) Stapf, Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Sorghum verticilliflorum (Steudel) Stapf

Common name(s): [more details]

English: common wild sorghum

Fijian: kavirondo sorghum

Spanish: sorgo

Habit:  grass

Description: 

Genus: "Annuals or perennials; panicle terminal, consisting of 1-5 disarticulating racemes; rachis disarticulating in wild species but usually not in cultivated species; spikelets paired or in threes, dissimilar, the sessile spikelets bisexual and seed-bearing, the pedicelled male or neuter" (Smith, 1979; p. 376).

Species:  "Perennial, the culms 90-120 cm or more high; leaf blades 45-90 cm long, 5-7.5 cm broad, tapering to a fine point; spikelets golden-brown in color, turning black at maturity, 6-7 mm long, the lower glume lacking an awn or, on a few spikelets, mucronate." (Smith, 1979)"Annual or short-lived perennial without rhizomes; culms 0.3-4 m high, often robust, the nodes glabrous or pubescent.  Leaf-blades variable, often large, 5-75 cm long, 5-70 mm wide.  Panicle linear to broadly spreading, 10-60 cm long; primary branches compound, ultimately bearing racemes of 2-7 spikelet pairs.  Sessile spikelet lanceolate to narrowly ovate, 4-9 mm long, glabrescent to white pubescent, sometimes tomentose or fulvously pubescent, awnless or more often with an awn 5-30 mm long.  Pedicelled spikelet linear to lanceolate, male or barren, smaller than the sessile"  (Clayton and Renvoize, 1982; p. 727).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "Swampy soils, streamsides and black clays; also in disturbed places and old farmland; 0-1800 (-2900) m" (Clayton and Renvoize, 1982; p. 727).  In Papua New Guinea, "mostly a weed of roadsides and headlands"  (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 45).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  East Africa and Indian Ocean islands (Smith, 1979; p. 376).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 12)
Vouchers cited: M. Lazarides 8031 (CANB, K); P.S. Green 2416 (K); M. Lazarides 11318 (NSW); Nov. 1902, J.H. Maiden & J.L. Boorman (NSW)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 360)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum arundinaceum
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 373)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum arundinaceum
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 336)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum arundinaceum
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 376)
Cultivated in Smith. Voucher cited: DA 9121
French Polynesia
French Polynesia Islands
French Polynesia Islands   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 65)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 3000 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11227 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Snow, Neil/Lau, Alex (2010) (p. 56)
Voucher cited: K.F. Bio 01-0029-01 (BISH)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (pp. 251-252)
Voucher cited: CHR 168733
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 57)
Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 6)
Misidentified as Sorghum sudanense in the text. Vouchers: Flynn 6684 (PTBG, K, NIUE), Flynn 6685 (PTBG, K, NIUE)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 56)
Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 10)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2000) (voucher ID: PTBG 40692)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum arundinaceum (Desv.) Stapf
Niue
Niue
Niue Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2000) (voucher ID: PTBG 30186)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum arundinaceum (Desv.) Stapf
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 45)
Common in a few lowland localities.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 65)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 320)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum arundinaceum
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 110)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 34427)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum arundinaceum (Desv.) Stapf
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 34400)
Taxon name on voucher: Sorghum arundinaceum (Desv.) Stapf
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 97)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized


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This page was created on 20 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 21 JUN 2010.