Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cananga odorata
(Lam.) Hook.f & Thoms., Annonaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Low risk (based on second screen), score: 3 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Canangium odoratum (Lam.) Baill. ex King; Uvaria odorata Lam.

Common name(s): [more details]

Austral: motoi

Carolinian: lengileng

Chamorro: alang-ilang, alangilang, ilang-ilang, ilangilang, ilangilang

Chinese: yi lan

Chuukese: pwalang, pwalang, pwalang, pwanang, pwanang, pwuur

English: Macassar oiltree, perfume tree, woolly-pine, ylang-ylang

Fijian: makasoi, makasui, makosoi, makosui, makusui, mokohoi, mokosoi, ylang-ylang

Filipino: ylang-ylang

French: canang odorant, ilang-ilang, ylang-ylang

Hawaiian: lanalana

Japanese: iraniran

Kosraean: ilahnglahng, ilanlang

Kwara‘ae: sa‘o sa‘o

Maori (Cook Islands): mata‘oi, mato‘oi, moto‘oi, moto‘oi

Marquesan: moto‘i, moto‘i

Marshallese: ilañlañ

Nauruan: derangerang, derangirang

Niuean: motōi, motoi, motooi

Other: alang-ilang

Palauan: chiráng, ilang-ilang, irang

Pohnpeian: pur-n-wai, pwurenwai, sair-n-wai, seiren wai, seirin wai

Samoan: moso‘oi, moso‘oi, moso‘oi

Spanish: cadmia, cananga, ilang-ilang

Tahitian: mata‘oi, mato‘oi, moto‘i, moto‘oi, motoi, y‘lang y‘lang, ylang ylang

Tongan: mohokoi

Tuamotuan: motoi, motoi, muto‘i

Wallisian: mohokoi, mohokoi, mosokoi

Habit:  shrub/tree

Description:  "Trees or shrubs. Bark pale gray. Branchlets dark colored, striate with age, minutely pubescent when young, glabrescent. Petiole 1-2 cm, narrowly grooved; leaf blade in 2 ranks, ovate, oblong, or broadly elliptic, 9-23 x 4-14 cm, membranous to thinly papery, often drying black, glabrous when mature except for mostly whitish pubescence along midvein and secondary veins, secondary veins 7-15 on each side of midvein, base rounded, obtuse, or truncate and often inequilateral, apex acute to acuminate. Inflorescences axillary or on short woody branches, racemose or cymose, 1- or several flowered; peduncle 2-5 mm; bracts minute, deciduous. Flowers pendulous. Pedicel 1-5 cm, pubescent, bracteolate. Sepals ovate, ca. 0.7 mm, pubescent, connate at base, apex acute and reflexed. Petals green, turning yellow and inside basally with a purplish brown blotch, linear to linear-lanceolate, 5-8 x 0.5-1.8 cm, tomentose and with several veins minutely pubescent, basal claw small. Stamens oblong-oblanceolate, 0.7-1 mm; connectives apically acute, pubescent. Carpels 10-12, ca. 4 mm, puberulent when young, glabrescent; stigmas clavate, lamellate, fused, with a U-shaped groove on inner side running down to base of ovary to form a convex pileate disk. Monocarp stipes 1.2-1.8 cm; monocarps nearly black, ovoid, globose, or oblong, 1.5-2.3 x ca. 1 cm, pulpy, glabrous. Seeds 2-12 per monocarp, pale brown, in 2 series, surface pitted.

"A tree to 10-15 m tall; leaves alternate, simple, entire, ovate-oblong, acuminate, puberulent below, medium green; flowers rather larger, the petals yellowish, narrow, linear; stamens numerous; connective produced; ovaries several to many, free, style oblong; fruiting carpels stipitate, short-ovoid, black, 6-12-seeded"  (Stone, 1970; pp. 279-280).

Habitat/ecology:  Favors moist valleys to 800 m. Cultivated as an ornamental, from which it often escapes.  "The plants are commonly grown, becoming weedy occasionally, and spread into the forests where they become established"  (Welsh, 1998).  In Fiji, "cultivated and also extensively naturalized in gullies and on slopes, in forest and on its edges, at elevations from near sea level to about 800 m"  (Smith, 1981; pp. 37-38).

Propagation:  Seed or cuttings.

Native range:  Indo-China, Malesia and Queensland, Australia; cultivated and naturalized elsewhere in the tropics (GRIN).

"Indo-Malaysia. Introduced to Guam from the Philippines, now thoroughly naturalized, mostly in the southern hills, and seeming native (Stone, 1970; p. 279). "Probably an ancient introduction to Tonga and the rest of western Polynesia but it did not reach eastern Polynesia until the European era" (Whistler, 1992; p. 87).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 159)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 39)
Abundant.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 159)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 39)
Abundant.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 44)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 159)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 39)
Abundant. Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9178 (BISH), Garber 650 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
abo. intro.
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 48)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 40507)
Taxon name on voucher: Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook. f & Thomson
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1991) (voucher ID: PTBG 9501)
Taxon name on voucher: Cananga odorata
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Aunu‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 159)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 33)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 159)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island cultivated
Setchell, William Albert (1924) (pp. 94-95)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 78)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 78)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 79)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 97)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 78)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 26)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namonuito (Namonweito, Nómwun Wiité) Atoll   Merlin, M./Juvik, J. (1996) (p. 28)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. (1989) (p. 46)
Voucher cited: Manner & Mallon 235 (GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 78)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 26)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 78)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 26)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. 27)
Mostly cultivated.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 12)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 78)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 52)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2516 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 68)
Vouchers cited: M.J. Balick 3810 (NY, PTBG), M.J. Balick 3833 (NY, PTBG), M.J. Balick 3919 (NY, PTBG), M.J. Balick 4105 (NY, PTBG), A. Dores 57 (NY, BISH, PTBG), A. Dores 181 (NY, PTBG), B. Ekiek 27 (NY, BISH, PTBG), B. Ekiek 114 (NY, PTBG), E. Eperiam 46 (NY), E. Eperiam 53 (NY), T.W. Flynn 7932 (PTBG), S.F. Glassman 2516 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2792 (BISH), N. Krauss 1892a (BISH), N. Krauss 1895b (BISH), D.H. Lorence 7932 (BISH, PTBG, US), A. Raynor 117 (NY, PTBG), S.H. Riesenberg 54 (BISH), F. Sohl 79 (NY, PTBG), B.C. Stone 5375 (BISH), M. Takamatsu 635 (BISH), M. Takamatsu 648 (BISH), M. Takamatsu 1104 (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 34682)
Taxon name on voucher: Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook. f & Thomson
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 34636)
Taxon name on voucher: Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook. f & Thomson
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 38772)
Taxon name on voucher: Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook. f & Thomson
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 34622)
Taxon name on voucher: Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook. f & Thomson
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 21162)
Taxon name on voucher: Cananga odorata (L.) Hook. & Thomps.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 42837)
Taxon name on voucher: Cananga odorata
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2000) (voucher ID: PTBG 42988)
Taxon name on voucher: Cananga odorata
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 43673)
Taxon name on voucher: Cananga odorata
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 48878)
Taxon name on voucher: Cananga odorata
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2006) (voucher ID: PTBG 49074)
Taxon name on voucher: Cananga odorata
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Faraulep (Faraulap) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 78)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kambara Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 37-38)
Voucher cited: Smith 1291
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 37-38)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 845
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 37-38)
Voucher cited: Weiner 7-32
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 37-38)
Voucher cited: Greenwood 652
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 37-38)
Vouchers cited: Smith 4449; im Thurn 288 DA 13860 (DF 295) H.B.R. Parham 222, 247a, 247b, 181, 214, 331; Smith 9487, DA 18099, DA 7570, DA 16783
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 79-82)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 79-82)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: D.H. Lorence & L. Dunn 9053 (PAP), J. Florence, D.H. Lorence & W.L. Wagner 9514 (PAP), J. Florence, D.H. Lorence & W.L. Wagner 9515 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 6274)
Taxon name on voucher: Cananga odorata
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 6277)
Taxon name on voucher: Cananga odorata
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39366)
Taxon name on voucher: Cananga odorata
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 79-82)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: M.-H. Sachet 2153 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1975) (voucher ID: PTBG 13246)
Taxon name on voucher: Cananga odorata
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 79-82)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 8483 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39432)
Taxon name on voucher: Cananga odorata
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 79-82)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 31)
Voucher cited: BRY 25441
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 79-82)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 79-82)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11761 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maiao (Maiaoiti, Mauiti, Tupuaemanu) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 79-82)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maiao (Maiaoiti, Mauiti, Tupuaemanu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 79-82)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 31)
Vouchrs cited: Moore 241, BRY 26511, BRY 26700
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 79-82)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 79-82)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 31)
Voucher cited: BRY 25460
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 79-82)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2525 (PAP)
Naturalisée.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 79-82)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 3093 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Manihi Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 79-82)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Manihi Atoll introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M-H. (1983) (p. 21)
Voucher cited: Brooks & Brooks 80 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Manihi Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Rangiroa (Rairoa) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 79-82)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Rangiroa (Rairoa) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 79-82)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 79-82)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 79-82)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 279-280)
Voucher cited: Stone 3854 (GUAM), Stone 3994 (GUAM), Stone 4093 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 78)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1966) (voucher ID: PTBG 43311)
Taxon name on voucher: Cananga odorata
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1965) (voucher ID: PTBG 43315)
Taxon name on voucher: Cananga odorata
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
cultivated
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2013) (p. Voucher specimen)
Voucher cited: Lorence 5977 (BISH 600422)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
cultivated
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2013) (p. Voucher specimens)
Voucher cited: MacDaniels 424 (BISH 22963)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 63)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mejit (Mãjej) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 89)
Voucher cited: Thaman & Manner 17 (SUVA)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 15)
Vouchers cited: Anon. in MacKee 40305, MacKee 41894, Gazeau in MacKee 43542
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 44)
Vouchers cited: CHR 170285. CHR 170296
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 22)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (pp. 53-54)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9986 (BISH)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 39)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 100)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 78)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 96)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 96)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 183)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
New Britain Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1978) (voucher ID: PTBG 45156)
Taxon name on voucher: Cananga odorata
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 33)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 158)
In cultivation occurring in some forested areas up to an altitude of 800 m.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1984) (p. 6)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. Field notes.)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1984) (p. 6)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 54)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 71)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 113)
"Cultivated throughout Tonga"
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 59)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 113)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15658
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 51)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 105)
Voucher cited: Hotta 4080
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 113)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 15086, Hülimann 312
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 65)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 113)
Cited: Crosby.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
cultivated
Burkill, I. H. (1900) (p. 26)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 30)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Sichuan, Yunnan.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 40)
Ornamental, essential oil.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 23)
Cultivated only
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
cultivated
Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2005) (p. 111)

Comments:  Thought to be an aboriginal introduction throughout much of Polynesia. Can be invasive, so probably shouldn't be introduced to new locations.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 8 MAR 2013.