Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Heliotropium procumbens
Mill., Boraginaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Euploca procumbens (Mill.) Diane & Hilger

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: hunek tasi, hunek tasi

English: four-spike heliotrope, heliotrope, prostrate heliotrope, slender heliotrope

Spanish: cotorrera de agua

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Pale green to gray, erect to decumbent perennial herbs 1-5 dm tall, moderately to densely appressed pubescent; stems 1 to several from base, usually branched above.  Leaves numerous, linear-lanceolate, narrowly oblanceolate to elliptic, flat, sometimes revolute, 1-4 cm long, 0.2-1 cm wide, apex acute or short-acuminate, gradually narrowed toward the base.  Flowers in clusters of 1-4 elongate, open, bracteate, scorpioid cymes 2.5-10 cm long, peduncles 0.5-3 cm long; calyx deeply divided, the lobes unequal, linear to lanceolate, at anthesis 1-1.2 mm long, at maturity nearly doubling in size and becoming progressively more unequal; corolla white, 1.5-3 mm long, the tube sparsely strigose externally.  Nutlets 4, 1-seeded, ovoid, 1-2 mm long, densely strigose."  (Wagner et al. 1999; p. 396)."Low herb with narrow, pubescent, alternate leaves and tiny white sympetalous flowers in scorpioid cymes" (Whistler, 1988; p. 8).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in low elevation, dry, often coastal sites" (Wagner et al. 1999; p. 396). "Uncommon in grassy places in Samoa" (Whistler, 1988; p. 8).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Southern United States south to Central and South America and the West Indies" (Wagner et al. 1999; p. 396). For Micronesia, Fosberg et al. (1979; p. 231) list as var. depressum, native.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1991) (voucher ID: PTBG 10237)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliotropium procumbens
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 8)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1999) (voucher ID: PTBG 297)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliotropium procumbens
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1994) (voucher ID: PTBG 43362)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliotropium procumbens
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 231)
var. depressum
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 231)
var. depressum
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1966) (voucher ID: PTBG 41513)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliotropium procumbens Mill. var. var. depressum (Cham.) Fosberg
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 231)
var. depressum
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 231)
var. depressum
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 231)
var. depressum
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 231)
var. depressum
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1949) (voucher ID: PTBG 22822)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliotropium procumbens var. depressum
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1966) (voucher ID: PTBG 41514)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliotropium procumbens var. depressum
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1980) (voucher ID: PTBG 41515)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliotropium procumbens var. depressum
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1936) (voucher ID: PTBG 45142)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliotropium procumbens var. depressum
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Wagner, Warren L. (1999) (p. 15)
Voucher cited: Lorence 7638 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 396)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 396)
Voucher cited: Ishikawa 5466 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Tern Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim (1999) (p. 6)
Scattered on both sides of runway.
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
As Euploca procumbens (Mill.) Diane et Hilger
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (pp. 14-15)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg & Stoddart 54897 (US, HAW, K), Fosberg & Clapp 54898 (US, HAW)
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Orona (Hull) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (pp. 14-15)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg & Stoddart 54842 (US, HAW, K), Fosberg 55741 (US, BISH), Clegern 119 (BISH)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 74)
Voucher: Imada 2003-36 (BISH 697651)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Bikini (Pikinni) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 41)
var. depressum
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Bikini (Pikinni) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1988) (p. 14)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Bikini (Pikinni) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39895)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliotropium procumbens Mill.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 41)
var. depressum
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1975) (voucher ID: PTBG 45143)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliotropium procumbens var. depressum
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2006) (p. 6)
Var. depressum. "Rare; few plants found near houses, drier section of ocean road, in town".
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 231)
var. depressum
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 41)
var. depressum. Vouchers cited: Fosberg 34124, Fosberg 48022, Fosberg 65132, Herbst 8934, Herbst 8990, Whistler 11228
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 18)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 34124 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 43937)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliotropium procumbens
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 6)
"Rare; small patch near MIMRA base".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 231)
var. depressum
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 76)
var. depressum
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Maloelap Atoll   Imada, Clyde (2006)
var. depressum (Cham.) Fosb.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mili (Mile) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2010) (p. A11)
Uncommon; few plants observed on runway, Mili.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll   Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2009) (p. 2)
Voucher cited: Vander Velde 0514200913
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2009) (voucher ID: PTBG 49761)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliotropium procumbens
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island native
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 107)
Vouchers cited: Scully 141N (US), Thaman & Manner 22316 (SUVA)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 63)
Voucher: Lorence 9726 (PTBG, BISH, BNM, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 19)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliotropium procumbens Mill.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Raulerson, L./Rinehart, A. F./Falanruw, M. C. (1996) (p. 25)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 106)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 63)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Malaita Island   Orapa, Warea (2005)
Auki
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 396)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-9)
var. depressum
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Spit Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-9)
var. depressum
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 231)
var. depressum
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 41)
var. depressum
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1969) (p. 13)
Vouchers cited: Sachet 904 (US), Fosberg 43537 (US)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Campeche, Chiapas, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Veracruz
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 179)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 26)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 37878)
Taxon name on voucher: Heliotropium procumbens Mill.
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 30 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 18 OCT 2006.