Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Digitaria sanguinalis
(L.) Scop., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Panicum sanguinale L.; Syntherisma sanguinale (L.) Dulac

Common name(s): [more details]

Bontoc: pagpagai

Chinese: ma tang

English: crab finger grass, hairy crabgrass, hairy fingergrass, hairy summer grass, large crabgrass, purple crabgrass, summer grass

French: digitaire sanguine, manne terrestre, panic sanguin, sanguinette

Iloko: saka-saka

Japanese: inubie, mehishiba, mehishiba

Spanish: conejo, frente de toro, fresadilla, garrachuelo, gaudín, guardarrocio, manga larga, pasto cangrijo, pasto colchón, pasto cuaresma, pata de gallina, pata de gallo, pata de paloma

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Annual with weak, spreading culms mostly 30-100 mm long, these often decumbent at base and rooting at the lower nodes, the erect culm or branch tips seldom more than about 60 cm tall.  Sheaths typically pubescent with papilla-based hairs.  Ligules membranous, glabrous, irregularly dissected, mostly 1.0-2.5 mm long.  Blades soft, flat, 5-10 mm broad, pubescent on one or both surfaces to nearly glabrous.  Inflorescence usually with 4-9 erect or spreading , unbranched, racemose branches, these digitate at the culm apex or at the apex and in the 1-2 irregular verticils below.  Spikelets in pairs of one sessile and one pediceled, usually 2.7-3.0 mm long but occasionally longer.  First glume a minute, triangular scale or absent.   Lower lemma of both sessile and pediceled spikelets with 5 unequally spaced nerves, the lateral crowded to the margins, the midnerve with a wide space on either side.  Spikelets green or purple-tinged" (Howard, 1979; p. 105).

"Annual; decumbent, spreading; culms geniculate, usually rooting at the lower nodes, ascending, to 1 m long or more; sheaths shorter than internodes, pubescent; ligule a thin truncate membrane 1-2 mm long; racemes digitate or with a second or third node below the apex; rachis narrowly winged, c. 1 mm wide; spikelets 3 mm long, first glume small; second glume 3/4 as long as fruit; sterile lemma slightly longer; usually villous" (Stone, 1970; p. 208).

Description from GrassBase.
Description from the Flora of China online.

Habitat/ecology:  "Frequent in disturbed soils of gardens and ditches; usually growing as a weed of moist, disturbed sites" (Howard, 1979; p. 105).

"In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Low altitude, interior valleys; coastal mountains, 500-2000 m; coastal areas, 0 - 500 m.  Dry, arid areas, with long drought periods of 6-10 months, precipitations of 100 mm-300 mm. are concentrated in winter; somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 3-5 months, precipitations of 400-800 mm. are concentrated in winter.  Fully exposed to the sun, level areas or slopes facing north"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Africa, Europe, Asia; widely naturalized elsewhere, including North America (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 205)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 22)
"A weed of cultivated and wasteland, as it is throughout the warm temperate regions of the world". Voucher cited: L.M. Bingley 34 (K)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 553)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 40800)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 542)
"Almost cosmopolitan and weedy".
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R./West, C. J. (1996) (p. 452)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 95-97)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (pp. 54-55)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 57)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 57)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia
Naturalized
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalized
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 95-97)
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 95-97)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Fields, roadsides, weedy places. Anhui, Gansu, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 332)
Along roadside.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 95-97)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 95-97)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 128)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 95-97)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 128)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 95)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 95-97)
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Brunei
Brunei (Negara Brunei Darussalam)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 542)
"Cultivated ground (gardens, lawns, street berms), waste land. Almost cosmopolitan and weedy".
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. plate)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 95-97)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Fields, roadsides, weedy places.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 95)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Maldive Islands   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 11)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Additional information:
Photos and other information from Chileflora.

Additional online information about Digitaria sanguinalis is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Digitaria sanguinalis as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Digitaria sanguinalis may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John. 2011. Naturalized species in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile. Unpublished spreadsheet.

Australian National Botanic Gardens. 2013. Australian plant common name database. Online resource.

Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido. 2006. Nouveau catalogue de la flore vaculaire de l'archipel Juan Fernández (Chile) [Nuevo catálogo de la flora vacular del Archipélago Juan Fernández (Chile)]. Acta Bot. Gallica 153(4):399-587.

Edgar, E./Connor, H. 2000. Flora of New Zealand, vol. V: Gramineae. Manaaki Whenua Press. .

Exell, A.W. et al., eds. 1979. Flora Zambesiaca 10(3).

Fosberg, F. R. 1957. The Maldive Islands, Indian Ocean. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 58. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 37 pp.

Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar. 1980. Grass weeds, vol. 1. CIBA-GEIGY Ltd., Basle, Switzerland. 142 pp. + plates.

Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar. 1980. Grass weeds, vol. 2. CIBA-GEIGY Ltd., Basle, Switzerland. 137 pp. + plates.

Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. 1977. The world’s worst weeds: distribution and biology. East-West Center/University Press of Hawaii. 609 pp.

Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 391 pp.

Howard, Richard A. 1979. Flora of the Lesser Antilles: Leeward and Windward Islands. Vol. 3, Monocotyledoneae. Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University. 586 pp.

Merrill, Elmer D. 1925. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 1 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 463 pp.

National Herbarium of New South Wales. 2013. PlantNet: New South Wales Flora online. The Plant Information Network System of the Botanic Gardens Trust Version 2.0. Online resource.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2002. Voucher specimen #PTBG40800(Tim Flynn 7008).

Orchard, Anthony E., ed. 1994. Flora of Australia. Vol. 49, Oceanic islands 1. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Pickard, J. 1984. Exotic plants on Lord Howe Island: Distribution in space and time, 1853-1981. J. of Biogeography 11:181-208.

Sykes, W. R./West, C. J. 1996. New records and other information on the vascular flora of the Kermadec Islands. New Zealand Journal of Botany 34:447-462.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. 2013. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

Waterhouse, D. F. 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. 141 pp.

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.

Yuncker, T. G. 1959. Plants of Tonga. Bishop Museum Bull. 220. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 343 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 17 APR 2013.