Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Casuarina glauca
(dummy value for TaxonCode Authority; this value should be replaced!!).......Casuarinaceae


High risk, score: 20 (Go to the risk assessment)

Chinese: cu zhi mu ma huang

English: gray sheoak, grey bull-oak, long-leaf ironwood, longleaf ironwood, marsh she-oak, saltmarsh ironwood, scaly-bark beefwood, suckering Australian pine, swamp oak, swamp she-oak

French: filao multipliant

"Trees usually 15-18 m tall; branches long, coarse, usually glaucous.  Leaf sheaths with 9-18 teeth.  Staminate spikes densely flowered, ca. 2.5 cm long, bracts pubescent, especially at base.  Cones subglobose, flat-topped, ca. 0.7-1.3 cm in diameter, the valves prominent, protruding ca. 1-1.5 mm, pubescent, apex obtuse.  Nuts ca. 4.7-5 mm long (including wing)" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 529).

"Trees dioecious, to 20 m tall. Trunk to 35 cm d.b.h.; bark grayish brown or grayish black, finely fissured and scaly, pale yellow adaxially. Ultimate branchlets ascending to pendulous, grayish green or glaucous green, rather long, to 1 m, 0.9-1.4 mm in diameter; articles 1-1.8 cm, slightly swollen at apex. Leaves erect but those of new shoots strongly recurved, 12-17 per whorl, narrowly lanceolate. Male inflorescences 1-3 cm. Cones broadly ellipsoid to subglobose, 1.2-2 cm, truncate at both ends; apex of bracteoles broadly acute to obtuse. Samaras 4-6 mm including wing"  (Flora of China online). This species is very similar to Casuarina equisetifolia. However, it forms suckers prolifically, producing dense stands. It is the most aggressive ironwood in Hawai‘i (Smith, 1985; p. 187).  "Coastal beaches, sandy banks.  In the native range, this tree occurs on saline swamp flats, on estuarine floodplains, wetland forests and along salt marshes.  The tree is nitrogen-fixing and not as salt tolerant as [Casuarina equisetifolia].  The tree produces large amounts of litter that prevent the growth and establishment of native species"  (Weber, 2003; p. 89). Wind-borne seed; suckers profusely. New South Wales and Queensland, Australia; also cultivated (GRIN).
Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 33)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 19)
"A native of Australia (eastern N.S.W. and Qld) which has been introduced on the Islands and, with its tendency to sucker, has become naturalised". Vouchers cited: I. Hutton 592 (K), I. Hutton 593 (K)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 8)
"A native of Australia (eastern N.S.W. and Qld) which has been introduced on the Islands and, with its tendency to sucker, has become naturalised. The plants on Norfolk Is. are reported to be male only". Voucher cited: G. Uhe 1229 (K)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 529)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, R. T. (2000) (p. 3)
Voucher cited: P.M. Burch L107 (BISH 579940)
Spreading by root sprouts.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 529)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim (2011) (pp. 24-25)
Voucher cited: Starr, Starr & Higashino 080208-02 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 529)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Oppenheimer, Hank (2011) (p. 7)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H110818 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 529)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 529)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, R. T. (2000) (p. 3)
West Maui. Vouchers cited: W.L. Wagner, C. Imada & W. Takeuchi 5856 (BISH 529839), Oppenheimer H99906 (BISH)
Spreading vegetatively.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 529)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2008) (p. 26)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H110608 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 529)
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (pp. 16-17)
Vouchers cited: Degener 21372, Fosberg 30876 (US), Clapp P-71-11 (US), Fosberg & Stoddart 54777 (US, HAW, K)
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island introduced
Luomala, Katharine (1951) (p. 172)
Voucher cited: Luomala 37
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2002) (p. 19)
Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 990511-1 (BISH)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-5)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 512)
"Shingle pits and sandy banks, cemeteries".
Known from only 3 collections.
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Naturalisé/±envahissant"
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Lavergne, C. (2004) (p. 5)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Baret, Stephane/Rouget, Mathieu/Richardson, David M./Lavergne, Christophe/Egoh, Benis/Dupont, Joel/Strasberg, Dominique (2006) (p. 758)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
A non-native Casuarina that is a pest in Hawai‘i.

Planting of this species in the State of Florida (U.S.) is prohibited by Florida Department of Environmental Protection (Hunsberger, 2001). See control methods for Casuarina equisetifolia.


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