Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Casuarina equisetifolia
L., Casuarinaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 21 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Casuarina litorea L. ex Fosberg & Sachet

Common name(s): [more details]

Austral: aito, aito, toa, to‘a, toa

Carolinian: weighu

Chamorro: gago, gago, gagu, gagu, goago

Chinese: mu ma huang

Chuukese: neokuk, ueoku, ueokuk, weeku, weeku, weku

English: Australian beefwood, Australian pine, beach casuarina, beach sheoak, beach-oak, beefwood, casuarina, coast ironwood, coast she-oak, coastal she-oak, common ironwood, horsetail she-oak, horsetail tree, ironwood, she oak, whistling-pine, whistlingtree

Fijian: cau, cau, nakure, nggaro, nokonoko, nokonoko ndamu, qaro, thau, velau

French: arbe de fer, arbre de fer, bois de fer, filao, filao bord-de-mer, filao-pays, pin d'Australie

German: tanenbaum

Hawaiian: paina

I-Kiribati: te burukam, te kai ni kiritimati, te katurina

Japanese: mukumao

Kwara‘ae: salu

Mangarevan: aito, eto, heto, toa

Maori (Cook Islands): toa

Marquesan: aito, kakaouou, toa, toa, toa, toa

Marshallese: bûlukam, mejinoki, nidõl, pientri

Niuean: toa

Other: vemas

Palauan: nas, ngas, ngasu

Pohnpeian: wehku, weku

Rotuman: toa

Samoan: toa, toa

Satawalese: ueuhir

Solomon Pijin: nonyo

Spanish: árbol de hierro, casuarina

Tahitian: aito, aito, ‘aito, aito, aito, toa, toa

Tongan: toa

Tuamotuan: aito, aito

Tuvaluan: laremanifi, toa

Ulithian: lach

Wallisian: toa, toa

Woleaian: laash

Yapese: nach, noc

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Trees 10-20 m tall; branches long, slender, the tips drooping, pubescent.  Leaf sheaths with (6)7(-9) teeth. Staminate spikes densely flowered, 1-6 cm long, bracts densely pubescent.  Cones subglobose to elongate and oblong-globose, 1.2-2.2 cm long, ca. 1.1-1.4 cm in diameter, the valves broadly ovate, protruding ca. 2 mm, pubescent, apex obtuse.  Nuts 6-7 mm long (incl. wing)"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 528-529).

"Trees monoecious, to 35 m tall, not suckering from roots. Trunk straight, to 70 cm d.b.h.; crown conical; bark scaly, adaxially red-brown on old trees. Ultimate branchlets usually pendulous, grayish green, 10-27 cm x 0.8-0.9 mm; articles (2.5-) 4-9 mm. Leaves erect and appressed to branchlets, (6 or) 7 (or 8) per whorl, lanceolate or triangular, 1-3 mm. Male inflorescences 1-4 cm. Cones ellipsoid, 1.2-2.5 cm, grayish green or yellowish brown tomentose when young, glabrous at maturity, base and apex truncate to obtuse; apex of bracteoles slightly obtuse or acute. Samaras 5-8 mm including wing"  (Flora of China online).

See also Casuarina glauca.

Habitat/ecology:  A pioneer, salt-resistant tree.  Very hardy on both limestone and volcanic soils.  Where invasive, forms monotypic stands under which little else grows. "Its ability to fix free nitrogen allows it to thrive on coastal sands where few other plants can survive; under these conditions it can form a virtual monoculture, excluding all other plant species.  It is thought that the roots and needle litter exude a chemical that kills other plants, an example of the phenomenon known as allelopathy.  The species thrives in full sun, tolerates windblown salt spray and saline soil, grows in everything from pure sand to fairly heavy clay in a wide pH rang, and does not require much moisture"  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 229).  In Hawai‘i it is common in all but the driest and wettest coastal areas of all islands up to 500 m (Cronk & Fuller, 2001; p. 144)..  In Fiji, occurs "between sea level and about 475 m in dry seaside areas such as sandy beaches, rocky coasts, and coastal forest, and inland on grass- and reed-covered hills and in open forest" (Smith, 1981; p. 253).  Arid lowlands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; p. 95).  "Suppresses plant growth under its canopy"  (Motooka et al., 2003).  Fire-resistant.

Propagation:  Seeds, wind- and water-dispersed.

Native range:  Australia and into Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia; widely cultivated and naturalized in tropical and subtropical regions. Probably an ancient introduction to Polynesia (Whistler, 1992; p. 101). Either native to Melanesia and Micronesia or an early introduction.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 34)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 44)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 34)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Aunu‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1975) (voucher ID: BISH 430647)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 33)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 101)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1920) (voucher ID: BISH 135906)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 45)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 20)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 31578 (US, BISH, Fo, NY, L)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Aguijan (Agiguan, Aguihan) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 45)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Aguijan (Agiguan, Aguihan) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1952) (voucher ID: BISH 136017)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 45)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 20)
Vloucher cited: Fosberg 31646 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 45)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 20)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 1660 (US), Evans 2447 (US, BISH, Fo, NY)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 401437)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Farallon de Medinilla (Marpi, Medinilla) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 45)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Farallon de Pajaros (Uracas) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 45)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Farallon de Pajaros (Uracas) Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 20)
"Planted by Fritz in 1900"
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Guguan Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 20)
"Planted by Fritz in 1900"
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Guguan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1882) (voucher ID: BISH 662253)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Maug Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 45)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Maug Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1977) (p. 29)
Voucher cited: Dickinson & Mersereau 17 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Maug Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1975) (voucher ID: BISH 414361)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 45)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 20)
Vouchers cited: Hosokawa 7949 (US, Fo), Kondo in 1949 (BISH), Anderson 580 (US, BISH, Fo, NY, L), Fosberg 31411 (US, BISH, Fo, NY, L), Villagomez JV-02 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 45)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island possibly native
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane (2000) (p. 7)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 136019)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 658905)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 45)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 45)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1944) (voucher ID: BISH 136016)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Manihiki Atoll introduced
abo. intro.
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Manuae Atoll (Northern Cook Islands) introduced
abo. intro.
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Nassau Island introduced
abo. intro.
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Penrhyn (Tongareva) Island introduced
abo. intro.
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Pukapuka Atoll introduced
abo. intro.
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Rakahanga Atoll introduced
abo. intro.
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
abo. intro.
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 81928)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
abo. intro.
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 16)
Naturalized.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 665326)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 666337)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
abo. intro.
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 16)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
abo. intro.
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 16)
Naturalized.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
abo. intro.
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 16)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 666081)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Palmerston (Avarau) Island introduced
abo. intro.
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
abo. intro.
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 81921)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 135882)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1903) (voucher ID: BISH 135883)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 45)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 135995)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 31)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namonuito (Namonweito, Nómwun Wiité) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 45)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll native
Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. (1989) (p. 42)
Voucher cited: Manner & Mallon 265 (GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Satawan Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 45)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Satawan Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 135993)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Satawan Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 135994)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 31)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Udot Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 45)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Udot Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 135996)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1959) (p. 11)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1935) (voucher ID: BISH 135997)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 14)
Uncommon
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Mokil (Mwokil) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 45)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 45)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 79)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2912 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 77)
Voucher cited: S. F. Glassman 2912 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 135992)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Satawal Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 45)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Satawal Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1969) (p. 6)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 46851 (US)
One tree, probably planted.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 45)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 81546)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 81559)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Woleai Atoll introduced
Merlin, M./Kigfas, A./Keene, T./Juvik, J. (1996) (p. 111)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 45)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1948) (voucher ID: BISH 135998)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 253)
Voucher cited: Smith 316
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 135907)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 135908)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Koro Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 607816)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 253)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 815
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Matuku Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 253)
Voucher cited: Bryan 253
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Matuku Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 135913)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Moala Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 253)
Voucher cited: Milne 127
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Navutu-i-ra Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 253)
Voucher cited: Bryan 468
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Navutu-i-ra Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 135916)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ngau Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 253)
Voucher cited: Milne 126
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 253)
Voucher cited: Gibbs 861
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 618851)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 618857)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1994) (voucher ID: BISH 637958)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 638057)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 253)
Voucher cited: Gillespie 4710
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 135911)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1928) (voucher ID: BISH 135912)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Totoya Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 253)
Voucher cited: Milne 94
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 253)
Vouchers cited: H.B.R. Parham 443, DF 689 (Damanu L.18), Smith 6430, Degener & Ordonez 14127
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 135910)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1971) (voucher ID: BISH 448550)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina littorea L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1941) (voucher ID: BISH 696848)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 253)
Vouchers cited: Smith 1493, Garnock-Jones 1078
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 135914)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 135915)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 420631)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 253)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 220, Smith 4630, DF 294 (Damanu 22), O & I. Degener 32201, DA 9495, DA 9674, DA 11281, DA 1372
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1955) (voucher ID: BISH 4666)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1957) (voucher ID: BISH 14664)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1955) (voucher ID: BISH 32960)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1963) (voucher ID: BISH 32961)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 34492)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 135918)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 135919)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Yasawas Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 253)
Vouchers cited: Weiner 241, ST. John 18155
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Yasawas Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1937) (voucher ID: BISH 135917)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Yasawas Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 448397)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina littorea L.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 12)
Voucher cited: St. John 14622 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Gaioio Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Tarauru-Roa Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Tarauru-Roa Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Tauna Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Tauna Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Tekava Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Tekava Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Totegegie Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Totegegie Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J.-C. Thibault 1021 (PAP), J. Florence & M. Teikiteetini 9361 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 601651)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: D.H. Lorence 6206 (PAP), J. Florence 7387 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 543349)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 6593)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island introduced
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 42532)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: E.J.-F. Le Guillou s.n. (PAP), M.P. Mercier s.n. (PAP)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: F. Hallé 2050 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 12033 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11744 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maiao (Maiaoiti, Mauiti, Tupuaemanu) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maiao (Maiaoiti, Mauiti, Tupuaemanu) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 25)
Voucher cited: Fosberg & Sachet 64969 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Raynal 17881 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 607765)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 662229)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10325 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 642908)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2167 (PAP), J. Florence 4011 (PAP), C.L. Cartier 119 (PAP), C.L. Cartier 221 (PAP), C.L. Cartier 309 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 22330)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 492587)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 493280)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mopelia (Mapetia, Maupiha‘a, Maupihoa, Mopiha‘a) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mopelia (Mapetia, Maupiha‘a, Maupihoa, Mopiha‘a) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M.-H. (1983) (p. 25)
Voucher cited: Sachet 936 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mopelia (Mapetia, Maupiha‘a, Maupihoa, Mopiha‘a) Atoll native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 61)
Vouchers cited: Moore 382, BRY 24880
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: P. Morat 6998 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10596 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 642418)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 61)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: E. Vieillard s.n. (PAP), J.B. Hombron s.n. (PAP), J. Vesco s.n. (PAP)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 135868)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tetiaroa Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tetiaroa Atoll introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M.-H./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 40)
Voucher cited: Fosberg & Sachet 54567 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tetiaroa Atoll native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tupai Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tupai Island introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M.-H. (1983) (p. 15)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tupai Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Fangataufa (Ahunui) Atoll introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 93)
"Dry lowlands"
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Fangataufa (Ahunui) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Fangataufa (Ahunui) Atoll native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J.-C. Jolinon 1262 (PAP), J.-C. Jolinon 1309 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Fangataufa (Ahunui) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1987) (voucher ID: BISH 662239)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Fangataufa (Ahunui) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1987) (voucher ID: BISH 662585)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Hao (Hau) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Hao (Hau) Atoll native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 3036 (PAP)
Sur plage fossile. Planté, se naturalise près du débarcadére.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 493028)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 645269)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Manihi Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Manihi Atoll probably native
Sachet, M-H. (1983) (p. 18)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Manihi Atoll native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Moruroa Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Moruroa Atoll native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10198 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 642074)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Rangiroa (Rairoa) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Rangiroa (Rairoa) Atoll native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 9994 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Rangiroa (Rairoa) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 633845)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Fourdrigniez, Marie (2008) (p. 14)
Subspontanée d'introduction européene.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll probably native
cultivated
Sachet, M-H. (1983) (p. 18)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tenarunga Atoll native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tikehau (Tikahau) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tikehau (Tikahau) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 7155 (PAP)
Planté
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Maria Atoll native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 5612 (PAP), J. Florence 5652 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 553003)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 553022)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5533 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 553137)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1982) (voucher ID: PTBG 16484)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: N. Hallé 6594 (PAP)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 241-242)
Voucher cited: Stone 4247 (GUAM); var souderi Fosberg; voucher cited: Souder A-1
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 45)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1962) (voucher ID: BISH 136005)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 136009)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 136010)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 136011)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1960) (voucher ID: BISH 402084)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 443839)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1970) (voucher ID: BISH 507497)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 595815)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
French Frigate Shoals introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 528-529)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 528-529)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 528-529)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 528-529)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 528-529)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2001) (p. 9)
Occasional.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 528-529)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Laysan Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 528-529)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Laysan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim (1999) (p. 9)
We observed 1 or 2 plants.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lisianski Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 528-529)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lisianski Island introduced
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim (1999) (p. 13)
4 dead trees.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 528-529)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 528-529)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 528-529)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 528-529)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Pearl and Hermes Reef introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 528-529)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Tern Island introduced
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim (1999) (pp. 5-6)
A few trees, dead and alive.
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
invasive
Toyoda, Takeshi (2003) (p. 279)
Naturalized
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Kiritimati (Christmas) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 20)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 20)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Christophersen, Erling (1927) (p. 77)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Teraina (Washington) Island introduced
cultivated
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 20)
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (p. 16)
Voucher cited: Degener & Hatheway 21303
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island introduced
Luomala, Katharine (1951) (p. 172)
Voucher cited: Luomala 44
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Abemama Atoll introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 13)
Voucher: Imada 2003-154 (BISH 697765)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 46)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 13)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 46)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 13)
Voucher: Imada 2003-39 (BISH 697654)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2003) (voucher ID: BISH 697654)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1972) (voucher ID: PTBG 30909)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 46)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1962) (p. 14)
Vouchers cited: Lyman 7 (US), Fosberg 39469 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 136001)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2006) (p. 6)
"Rare; few small trees planted near beach, northern ocean road, one which had recently died; considered to be a high risk invasive, especially on coral islands and atolls".
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 46)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll uncertain if native
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 99)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1959) (p. 3)
"Apparently occasionally spontaneous from seeds of paltned trees".
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 136002)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 514256)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 526996)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 6)
"Common; planted as wind break by some houses, near B&B, former R&D farm".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 46)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1959) (p. 3)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 36630 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1956) (voucher ID: BISH 136003)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 81)
Naturalized in some areas.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1987) (voucher ID: BISH 511398)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 606421)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mili (Mile) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2010) (p. A12)
Uncommon; few planted trees, Mili.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2009) (p. 1)
Voucher cited: Vander Velde 0513200916
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 45)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 99)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (pp. 113-114)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 58776 (US), Thaman & Manner 81 (SUVA)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1945) (voucher ID: BISH 135955)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 449733)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 58)
Voucher cited: CHR 168863
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 22)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 44)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9788 (BISH)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 13)
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Helen Reef introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 17, 95)
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Helen Reef   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 625544)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Helen Reef   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 1002680)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina (Genus of Casuarinaceae)
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Tobi Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 17, 95)
Single tree.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 45)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 45)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 21)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 45)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 21)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1970) (voucher ID: BNM 241)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 45)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 438003)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1998) (voucher ID: BISH 658290)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina littorea L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 239)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1967) (voucher ID: BNM 240)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 25499)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 79)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 45)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 45)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngeanges Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 45)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngeanges Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 567725)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngemelis Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 21)
Voucher: Lorence 9887 (PTBG, BNM, BISH, NY, US)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngemelis Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 156)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerukuid (Ngerukeuid, Seventy) Islands   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Urukthapel (Ngeruktabel) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 123)
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 36)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 1)
Along sandy seashores, extending inland in open sandy valleys along streams, in places growing at altitudes as high as 800 m; usually gregarious.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 29)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 102-105)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island native
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 69)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 65)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1895) (voucher ID: BISH 135897)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1974) (voucher ID: BISH 418058)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1997) (voucher ID: BISH 29198)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1903) (voucher ID: BISH 135959)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Mikira (San Cristobal) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1932) (voucher ID: BISH 135957)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Ndeni (Santa Cruz) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1971) (voucher ID: BISH 153220)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Ontong Java Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1971) (voucher ID: BISH 601983)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Santa Isabel (Bughotu) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 135960)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Whitmore, T. C. (1969) (p. 267)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 56)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘apai Islands introduced
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 13)
Vouchers cited: Hotta 4177, Soakai 293
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Kao Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 639262)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina littorea L.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island introduced
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 13)
Vouchers cited: Hotta 4421!, Hotta 4422, Scarth-Johnson 51, Buelow 486
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 92-93)
"Occasional throughout the group"
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 696847)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 13)
Vouchers cited: Parks 16067, Yuncker 15453, Hotta 5396, Sykes 491, Sykes 592
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 92-93)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 154-53
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 135902)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. Field notes.)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 13)
Vouchers cited: D'Urville, Home s.n. (n.s.), Graeffe 1419 (n.s.), Cartwright s.n. (n.s.), Setchell & Parks 15316, Horlimann 66, Alexander 5810, Ilolahia 152 (cult.), Soakai 472, Hotta 4013, Hotta 4051
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 92-93)
Voucher cited: Hürlimann 66
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 41197)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 3901)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Late Island native
Sykes, W. R. (1981) (p. 348)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Late Island introduced
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: Buelow & Sykes 125
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuafo‘ou Island introduced
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 13)
Vouchers cited: Harlimann 667, Yuncker 15993, Whistler 6402
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuafo‘ou Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 92-93)
Voucher cited: Hürlimann 667, Yuncker 15993
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuafo‘ou Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 135900)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island introduced
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: Hurlimann 355
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 92-93)
Voucher cited: Hürlimann 355
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Tafahi Island introduced
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 13)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 13)
Vouchers cited: Harvey s.n., Graeffe s.n. (n.s.), Crosby (n.s.), Yuncker 16060, Notta 4751
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 92-93)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 16060
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Burkill, I. H. (1900) (p. 56)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 135901)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Nui Atoll   Woodroffe, C. D. (1985) (p. 10)
Voucher cited: Woodroffe 171 (CHR)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island introduced
cultivated
Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. (1976) (p. 54)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Eastern Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-5)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 528-529)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-5)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Spit Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-5)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Palmyra Atoll
Palmyra Atoll introduced
cultivated
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 20)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Palmyra Atoll
Palmyra Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1987) (voucher ID: BISH 573419)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1959) (p. 11)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1969) (p. 7)
Planted around buildings.
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1994) (voucher ID: BISH 659996)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Aneityum Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 135952)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Aneityum Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1955) (voucher ID: BISH 135953)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Espirito Santo Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 135956)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanua Lava Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1928) (voucher ID: BISH 135954)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 31)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 73)
Planted as wind breaks and sand stabilization.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
invasive
Cronk, Q. C. B./Fuller, J. L. (2001) (p. 144)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 181)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 24)
Common
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 108)
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 37)
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands native
cultivated
Williams, D. G. (1994) (pp. 22, 26)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   Stoddart, D. R./Taylor, J. D., eds. (1971) (p. 148)
Vouchers cited: Stoddart 814 (K), Rhyne 440 (US)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 26)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 37876)
Taxon name on voucher: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. (1991) (pp. 51-61)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Très envahissant"
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Lavergne, C. (2004) (p. 4)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Baret, Stephane/Rouget, Mathieu/Richardson, David M./Lavergne, Christophe/Egoh, Benis/Dupont, Joel/Strasberg, Dominique (2006) (p. 758)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 16)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 117)
Voucher cited: Procter 4189
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Alphonse Island   Robertson, I. A. D./Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 179)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2848 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Coetivy Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 147)
Voucher cited: Robertson 3080 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Cousin Island native
Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 23)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 52168 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
D'Arros Island   Stoddart, D. R./Coe, M. J./Fosberg, F. R. (1979) (p. 21)
Voucher cited: Gwynne & Wood 1026 (EA)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 48)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Marie-Louise Island   Wilson, J. R. (1983) (p. 190)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Platte Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 159)
Voucher cited: Robertson 3007 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Poivre Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 168)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
St. Joseph Island   Stoddart, D. R./Coe, M. J./Fosberg, F. R. (1979) (p. 44)
Vouchers cited: Gwynne & Wood 963 (EA), Stoddart 7150 (US)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
Cronk, Q. C. B./Fuller, J. L. (2001) (p. 144)

Comments:  Either native to Melanesia and Micronesia or an early introduction. Probably an aboriginal introduction to much of Polynesia. On most islands it is not a problem, although quite a bit of reproduction was seen on Rota (Space et al., 2000). However, it is reported to be moderately invasive in French Polynesia (Fangataufa) and Nauru (Meyer, 2000; pp. 93, 99).

A major problem species in the US (Florida) and the Bahamas. Planting of this species in the State of Florida (U.S.) is prohibited by Florida Department of Environmental Protection (Hunsberger, 2001).

Control: 

Physical:  "Seedlings and saplings can be hand pulled.  In fire-tolerant communities, prescribed fires are used to eradicate this tree, but they are effective only in dense stands with sufficient dry fuel"  (Weber, 2003; p. 88).

Chemical:  "Shoots and saplings sensitive to foliar applications of triclopyr. Trees sensitive to cut-surface applications of glyphosate, dicamba, picloram and, based on response of saplings to foliar applications, probably sensitive to cut-surface applications of triclopyr"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Additional information:
Excerpt from the book "Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide" (Motooka et al., 2003). (PDF format).
Information from the Bugwood Wiki.
Casuarina equisetifolia factsheet (from PCA-APWG).
Photos and additional information at University of Florida, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants.
Additional information at the Woody Plant Ecology web site.
Photo and additional information at the University of Guam "Plants of Guam" web site.
Information on this species from "Silvics of North American", USDA Agriculture Handbook 654.
Information from the Purdue University NewCROP web site.
Fact sheet from "Common forest trees of Hawaii" (PDF format).
Information from the World Agroforestry Centre's AgroForestryTree Database.
Information from the Global Invasive Species Database.
Information from the book "Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas" (PDF format).
Information from the USDA Tropical Tree Seed Manual (PDF format).

Additional online information about Casuarina equisetifolia is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Casuarina equisetifolia as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Casuarina equisetifolia may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Adair, F. 0. Ethnobotany of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands. Unpaged typed manuscript.

Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. 1976. The natural history of Johnston Atoll. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 192. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 479 pp.

Australian Biological Resources Study. 2013. Flora of Australia Online. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra.

Australian National Botanic Gardens. 2013. Australian plant common name database. Online resource.

Baret, Stephane/Rouget, Mathieu/Richardson, David M./Lavergne, Christophe/Egoh, Benis/Dupont, Joel/Strasberg, Dominique. 2006. Current distribution and potential extent of the most invasive alien plant species on La Réunion (Indian Ocean, Mascarene islands). Austral Ecology (2006) 31, 747-758.

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1967. Voucher specimen #BNM240(Emmons, B. 2).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1968. Voucher specimen #BNM239(Salsedo 67).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1970. Voucher specimen #BNM241(Salsedo 401).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 0. Voucher specimen #BISH 135868 (Wiles 1792).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 0. Voucher specimen #BISH 136010 (Thompson, J.B. 431).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 0. Voucher specimen #BISH 136011 (McGregor, R.C. 538).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1882. Voucher specimen #BISH 662253 (collector unknown 142).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1895. Voucher specimen #BISH 135897 (Reinecke 585).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1903. Voucher specimen #BISH 135883 (Seale, A.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1903. Voucher specimen #BISH 135959 (Seale, A.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1918. Voucher specimen #BISH 136009 (Nelson, P. 133).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1920. Voucher specimen #BISH 135906 (Setchell, W.A. 234).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1924. Voucher specimen #BISH 135913 (Bryan Jr, E.H. 253).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1924. Voucher specimen #BISH 135916 (Bryan Jr, E.H. 468).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 135919 (Parks, H.E. 20920).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1928. Voucher specimen #BISH 135912 (Gillespie, J.W. 4710).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1928. Voucher specimen #BISH 135954 (Kajewski, S.F. 451).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 135882 (Wilder, G.P. 867).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 135908 (Tothill, J.D.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 135952 (Kajewski, S.F. 697).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1932. Voucher specimen #BISH 135957 (Brass, L.J. 2999).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1933. Voucher specimen #BISH 135907 (Smith, A.C. 316).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1933. Voucher specimen #BISH 135960 (Brass, L.J. 3470).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1934. Voucher specimen #BISH 135914 (Smith, A.C. 1493).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1934. Voucher specimen #BISH 135915 (Smith, A.C. 1423).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1934. Voucher specimen #BISH 135956 (Baker, J.R. 287).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1934. Voucher specimen #BISH 136019 (Hosokawa, T. 7657).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1935. Voucher specimen #BISH 135997 (Takamatsu, M. 262).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1936. Voucher specimen #BISH 135995 (Takamatsu, M. 4).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1937. Voucher specimen #BISH 135917 (St.John, H. 18155).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1938. Voucher specimen #BISH 618851 (St.John, H. 19319).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1938. Voucher specimen #BISH 618857 (St.John, H. 19388).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1941. Voucher specimen #BISH 696848 (Degener, O. 14127).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1944. Voucher specimen #BISH 136016 (Cameron, E.R.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1945. Voucher specimen #BISH 135955 (Cohen, M.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 135996 (Hosaka, E.Y. 2739).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 136001 (Lyman, R.K. 7).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 567725 (Fosberg, F.R. 25838).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 135910 (Smith, A.C. 6430).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 135918 (Smith, A.C. 4630).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1948. Voucher specimen #BISH 135998 (Wong, C.C.Y. 465).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 135992 (Glassman, S.F. 2912).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 135993 (Anderson, D. 1058).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 135994 (Anderson, D. 1000).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 136002 (St.John, H. 23700).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 449733 (Bryan Jr, E.H. 1566).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1952. Voucher specimen #BISH 136017 (Kondon, Y.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 135900 (Yuncker, T.G. 15993).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 135901 (Yuncker, T.G. 16060).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 135902 (Yuncker, T.G. 15453).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 135911 (Smith, A.C. 8106).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1955. Voucher specimen #BISH 4666 (Parham, J.W. 9674).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1955. Voucher specimen #BISH 32960 (Parham, J.W. 9495).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1955. Voucher specimen #BISH 135953 (Cheesman, L.E.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1956. Voucher specimen #BISH 136003 (Fosberg, F.R. 36630).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1957. Voucher specimen #BISH 14664 (Koroiveibau, D. 11152).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1958. Voucher specimen #BISH 41197 (Slolahia, V. 152).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1960. Voucher specimen #BISH 402084 (Dutton, L.S. 131).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1962. Voucher specimen #BISH 136005 (Stone, B.C.M. 4247).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1963. Voucher specimen #BISH 32961 (Parham, J.W. 13193).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 81546 (Fosberg, F.R. 46435).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 81559 (Fosberg, F.R. 46613).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1967. Voucher specimen #BISH 22330 (Smith, H.M. 27).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1967. Voucher specimen #BISH 401437 (Evans, M. 2447).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1967. Voucher specimen #BISH 438003 (Emmons, B. 2).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 443839 (Falanruw, M.V.C. 953).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 34492 (Degener, O. 32201).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 81921 (Stoddart, D.R. 2115).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 81928 (Stoddart, D.R. 2179).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 696847 (Weiner, M.A. T 30).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1970. Voucher specimen #BISH 507497 (Roszel, S.J. 9).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1971. Voucher specimen #BISH 153220 (Yen, D.E. 15543).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1971. Voucher specimen #BISH 448550 (Weiner, M.A. MW 71731B).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1971. Voucher specimen #BISH 601983 (Bayliss-Smith, T.P. 57).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1973. Voucher specimen #BISH 662229 (collector unknown 17881).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1974. Voucher specimen #BISH 418058 (Whistler, W.A. W 1950).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1975. Voucher specimen #BISH 414361 (Dickinson, R.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1975. Voucher specimen #BISH 430647 (Kuruc, J. J 51).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1977. Voucher specimen #BISH 420631 (Garnock-Jones, P.J. 307436).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 448397 (Weiner, M.A. MW 73F241).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1981. Voucher specimen #BISH 493280 (Florence, J. 2167).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 493028 (Florence, J. 3036).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 639262 (G.Buelow 2855).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 658905 (Raulerson, L. 1506).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 666081 (Sykes, W.R. 2425).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 492587 (Florence, J. 4911).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 553003 (Florence, J. 5612).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 553022 (Florence, J. 5652).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 553137 (J. Florence 5533).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 595815 (Taitano, S. LR 4824).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1985. Voucher specimen #BISH 607765 (Fosberg, F.R. 64969).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1985. Voucher specimen #BISH 645269 (Fosberg, F.R. 64637).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1986. Voucher specimen #BISH 543349 (Florence, J. 7387).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1986. Voucher specimen #BISH 607816 (Miller, J.M. 986).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1987. Voucher specimen #BISH 511398 (Krauss, N. 1871).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1987. Voucher specimen #BISH 573419 (Herbst, D.R. 8847).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1987. Voucher specimen #BISH 662239 (Jolinon, J.C. 1262).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1987. Voucher specimen #BISH 662585 (Jolinon, J.C. 1309).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1988. Voucher specimen #BISH 514256 (Herbst, D.R. 8911).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1988. Voucher specimen #BISH 526996 (Herbst, D.R. 8923).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1988. Voucher specimen #BISH 601651 (J.Florence 9361).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1988. Voucher specimen #BISH 606421 (Herbst, D.R. 9198).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1990. Voucher specimen #BISH 633845 (Florence 9994).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1990. Voucher specimen #BISH 642074 (Florence 10198).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1990. Voucher specimen #BISH 642418 (Florence 10596).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1990. Voucher specimen #BISH 642908 (Florence 10325).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 638057 (McClatchey, W.C. 194).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 665326 (Sykes, W.R. 474833).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 666337 (Sykes, W.R. 474768).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 625544 (A.K.Kepler 92-164).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 1002680 (A.K.Kepler 92-163).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1994. Voucher specimen #BISH 637958 (McClatchey, W.C. 886).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1994. Voucher specimen #BISH 659996 (Herbst, D.R. 9699).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1997. Voucher specimen #BISH 29198 (collector unknown; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1998. Voucher specimen #BISH 658290 (Flynn, T. 6414).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 2003. Voucher specimen #BISH 697654 (C.Imada 2003-39).

Burkill, I. H. 1900. The flora of Vavau, one of the Tonga Islands, with a short account of its vegetation by Charles Steele Crosby. Lin. Jour. Bot. 35:20-65.

Charles Darwin Foundation. 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Charles Darwin Foundation, Galapagos, Ecuador.

Charles Darwin Research Station. 2005. CDRS Herbarium records.

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Christophersen, Erling. 1927. Vegetation of the Pacific equatorial islands. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 44 [Whippoorwill Expedition publication 2]. Honolulu. 79 pp.

Cronk, Q. C. B./Fuller, J. L. 2001. Plant invaders. Earthscan Publications, Ltd., London. 241 pp.

Falanruw, Marjorie C./Maka, Jean E./Cole, Thomas G./Whitesell, Craig D. 1990. Common and scientific names of trees and shrubs of Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall Islands. Pac. SW Forest and Range Expt. Stn. Resource Bulletin PSW-67. 91 pp.

Florence, J. 2004. Flore de la PolynÚsie franšaise, Vol. 2. Paris. IRE Editions, Publications Scientifiques, Collection Faune et Flore Tropicales 41. 503 pp.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Foreman, D. B. 1971. A check list of the vascular plants of Bougainville, with descriptions of some common forest trees. Botany Bulletin No. 5. Division of Botany, Department of Forests. Lae, New Guinea. 194 pp.

Fosberg, F. R. 1957. The Maldive Islands, Indian Ocean. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 58. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 37 pp.

Fosberg, F. R. 1959. Vegetation and flora of Wake Island. Atoll Research Bulletin 67. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 20 pp.

Fosberg, F. R. 1959. Additional records of phanerogams from the northern Marshall Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 68. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 9 pp.

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