Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Urochloa subquadripara
(Trin.) R. D. Webster, Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 8 (Go to the risk assessment).

Other Latin names:  Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.; Panicum subquadriparum Trin.; Urochloa distachya (L.) T. Q. Nguyen

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: si sheng bi xing cao

English: armgrass millet, cori grass, green summer grass, tropical signalgrass

Fijian: thobuti

Other: nofh-lov-si

Rotuman: mauspentotmafu

Tongan: mohuku'apopoa

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Perennial [grass], creeping; culms to 60 cm long; blades 2.5-7.5 cm long, up to 1 cm wide; panicle 5-15 cm long, with 3-5 descending spike-like racemes; spikelets similar.  First glume slightly less than half as long as the spikelet." (Stone, 1970) "Culms 30-60 cm high, rising from creeping, stoloniferous runners, the nodes glabrous; leaf blades glabrous, 5-15 cm long, 2.5-10 mm broad; flowering culm bearing 3-5 (sometimes 2-10) racemes, these spreading to descending, 1.8-5 cm long; spikelets alike, about 3.5 mm long, glabrous, the lower glume less than one-quarter length of spikelet, clasping base of spikelet, 5-7-nereved, the margins overlapping, the upper glume as long as spikelet, 7-nerved, fertile, the lemma transversely rugose"  (Smith, 1979; p. 332-333).

"Difficult to distinguish from Thurston Grass [Urochloa glumaris] but is lighter green and the outer glume is much smaller"  (Stone, 1970; 205).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "Occasional to common in lawns, various crops, waste places, and on roadsides (Whistler, 1983; p. 82).  In Fiji, "frequent from sea level to about 800 m, occurring in pastures and canefields, along roadsides, and on seashores" (Smith, 1979; p. 332-333).

Propagation:  Seed, rooting at nodes (Whistler, 1983; p. 82).

Native range:  Tropical Asia and Australia.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 48)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 35394)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadriparia (Trin.) Hitchc.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 44)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 32)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1992) (voucher ID: PTBG 43763)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 53)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 588965)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 588968)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 53)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 588971)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 53)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 588973)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 588974)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 125890)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 53)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 588966)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 53)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 588967)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fulanga Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 332-333)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kanathea Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 332-333)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Koro Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 332-333)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Mango Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 332-333)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Matuku Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 332-333)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Mbatiki Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 332-333)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Moturiki Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 332-333)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 332-333)
Voucher cited: Smith 8097
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 700000)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 612242)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 612246)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 332-333)
Voucher cited: DA 5736
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Uea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 612245)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 332-333)
Vouchers cited: DA 8736, DA 8950
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 332-333)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 332-333)
Vouchers cited: DA 10345, DA 8256, DA 8224, DA 8182, DA 2814, DA 8157, DA 7236, DA 7981, DA 9026, DA 8652, DA 8076, DA 7042, DA 7861, DA 7905, DA 3375, DA 11791, DA 7778, DA 2894
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1956) (voucher ID: BISH 31559)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 31560)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1951) (voucher ID: BISH 31561)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Yasawas Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 332-333)
Voucher cited: St. John 18088
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Yasawas Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1937) (voucher ID: BISH 36289)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 205)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 53)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 588970)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 588972)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 699998)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy W./Wagner, Warren L. (1995) (p. 44)
Vouchers cited: T. Flynn 644 (PTBG), D. Lorence & T. Flynn 6726 (BISH, MO, PTBG, US), Au s.n. (BISH)
Naturalized along roadsides and in pastures.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1503)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1503)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1503)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands   Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Abemama Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 76)
Voucher: Imada 2003-174 (BISH 697785)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Abemama Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2003) (voucher ID: BISH 697785)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 53)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 31252)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 72)
Vouchers cited: Thaman & Manner 83 (SUVA), Hassall 155 (SUVA)
Rare
New Caledonia
Matthew Island
Île Matthew introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 58)
Voucher cited: Veillon 3409
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1876) (voucher ID: BISH 125916)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 58)
Voucher cited: Baumann 5242
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 235)
Vouchers cited: CHR 168779, CHR 168780, CHR 156955
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 47)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 7)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 56)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 53)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 83)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1994) (voucher ID: BISH 659851)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Aleipata Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1983)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Nu‘utele Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 427956)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 47)
Voucher cited: Whistler 79
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 100412)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 100421)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 47)
Voucher cited: Given s. n.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 83905)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 83906)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 52)
Tokelau
Tokelau Islands
Tokelau Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Kotu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 640410)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 57)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15731
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 700008)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 641729)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 1000898)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Late Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1981) (p. 352)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 97)
Voucher cited: Soakai 816
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Erromango Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1928) (voucher ID: BISH 700001)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria subquadripara (Trin.) Hitchc.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. (1985)
Morat & Veillon, 1985, cited in Meyer, 2007
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 47)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 328)
On grasslands, abandoned fields and in thin forests.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 106)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Rivers, Julie (2004) (p. 2)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 11)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 36864 (US)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 53)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Alphonse Island   Robertson, I. A. D./Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 182)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2885 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Coetivy Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 153)
Voucher cited: Robertson 3154 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 58)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2719


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 7 MAR 2010.