Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Urochloa glumaris
(Trin.) Veldkamp, Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Brachiaria paspaloides (Presl) Hubbard; Panicum glumare Trin.; Urochloa paspaloides Presl

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: que bai wei fu cao

English: common signalgrass, thurston grass

Tahitian: nanamu ti‘a rahi

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Annual. Culms slender, spreading, branching and rooting at lower nodes, 20-60 cm or more tall, nodes pubescent. Leaf sheaths glabrous or loosely pilose; leaf blades linear, 5-20 x 0.3-0.8 cm, thinly pilose on both surfaces with tubercle-based hairs, apex acuminate; ligule ca. 1 mm. Inflorescence axis 1.5-4 cm; racemes 2-4, 2-5 cm, rather stiffly ascending; rachis narrow, triquetrous, scabrous; spikelets usually paired, loosely overlapping. Spikelets lanceolate, 3.5-4 mm, glabrous, sharply acute; lower glume lanceolate, 2/3-3/4 spikelet length, 5-7-veined, acute and apiculate; upper glume 5-7-veined, sharply acute; lower lemma obscurely 5-veined, palea very small; upper lemma elliptic-oblong, only slightly shorter than spikelet, finely rugulose, mucro 0.4-0.5 mm"  (Flora of China online).

"Perennial, the culms creeping, slender, branched, 30-150 cm high, the nodes glabrous; leaf blades glabrous, 5-15 cm long, 2.5-10 mm broad; panicle 5-15 cm long, bearing 2-7 spikelike racemes, these spreading or reflexed; spikelets alike, solitary, falling entire, 2-flowered, the lower glume three-quarters length of spikelet"  (Smith, 1979; pp. 330-331).

"Stems slender, decumbent to sub-erect, tending to root at the lower nodes, mostly less than 30 cm tall.  Leaves pubescent, more or less tufted hairy at the sheath apex.  Leaf blades to ca. 20 cm long, often much less.  Inflorescence rachis pubescent.  Racemes 2-3 cm long, tending secund.  Spikelets 2.5-3 mm long, apiculate; outer glume nearly as long as rest of the spikelet"  (Sykes, 1970; p. 235).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "In moist, sunny or shaded situations in lawns, plantations, upland rice, riverbanks and roadsides, 0-1200 m altitude" (Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998; pp. 51-62).  "A weed of moist localities" (Stone, 1970; p. 205). In Fiji, "commonly found at low elevations (usually below 15 m) along roadsides, in pastures, in waste places, in cultivated areas, near the seashore, and often forming mats on the dry mud of riverbanks." Apparently an early introduction into Fiji which has become naturalized and widespread. (Smith, 1979; pp. 330-331).  In Niue, "in waste, or at least disturbed, places near the coast, and probably it is present in many plantations" (Sykes, 1970; p. 235). In New Caledonia, "largement répandu" (MacKee, 1994; p. 57). "Occasional in disturbed places" (Whistler, 1988; p. 47).

Propagation:  "Seeds and root fragments dispersed externally by animals" (Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998).

Native range:  Probably indigenous to tropical Asia (Sykes, 1970; p. 235).  "Probably an aboriginal introduction to Western Polynesia" (Whistler, 1988; p. 47).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Voucher cited: Whistler 3062
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Vouchers cited: Whistler 1384, Whistler 3331a
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1990) (voucher ID: PTBG 9119)
Taxon name on voucher: Brachiaria paspaloides
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Anon. (1988) (p. 3)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 31639 (US, BISH, Fo)
Rare
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Nassau Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
?
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Kapingamarangi Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 51)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 61)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 51)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 51)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 330-331)
Voucher cited: DA 9069
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 330-331)
Voucher cited: DA 8940
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 330-331)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 593, Tothill s. n., DA 5700, U.S. Expl. Exped. 1840
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 330-331)
Vouchers cited: DA 8547, DA 9797, Smith 4749, DA 8978, DA 7983, DA 9103, DA 7049, DA 7885, DA 1221, DA 3964, DA 1325, Degener & Ordonez 13516, DA 1195
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Panicum ambiguum C.B. Trinius
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Panicum ambiguum C.B. Trinius
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 347)
Voucher cited: Grant 4877
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Brachiaria paspaloides (J.S. Presl ex C.B. Presl) C.E. Hubbard. Voucher cited: J. Florence 12130 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 347)
Voucher cited: Krauss 1655
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Brachiaria paspaloides (J.S. Presl ex C.B. Presl) C.E. Hubbard. Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11716 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 347)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 64855
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island   Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 14)
Vouchers cited: Raynal 17861, Fosberg 64855 (US), Fosberg & Sachet 64960 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Panicum ambiguum C.B. Trinius. Voucher cited: F.R. Fosberg 64855 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Brachiaria paspaloides (J.S. Presl ex C.B. Presl) C.E. Hubbard. Vouchers cited: J. Florence 10254 (PAP), J. Florence 10317 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 347)
Vouchers cited: Moore 74, Moore 99
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 3387 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 347)
Vouchers cited: Grant 3995, Florence 3196
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Brachiaria paspaloides (J.S. Presl ex C.B. Presl) C.E. Hubbard. Voucher cited: J. Florence 3196 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Brachiaria paspaloides (J.S. Presl ex C.B. Presl) C.E. Hubbard. Vouchers cited: J. Florence 5597 (PAP), J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11378 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 347)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Panicum ambiguum C.B. Trinius
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Panicum ambiguum C.B. Trinius
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Brachiaria paspaloides (J.S. Presl ex C.B. Presl) C.E. Hubbard. Vouchers cited: J. Florence 5514 (PAP), J. Florence 9229 (PAP)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 205)
Vouchers cited: Stone 4103 (GUAM), Stone 4981 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 51)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 380)
Largment répandue.
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 57)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 380)
Largement répandue.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 57)
Voucher cited: Vieillard 2351
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 380)
Largment répandue.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 57)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 235)
Vouchers cited: CHR 168781, CHR 168782
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 47)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 54)
Voucher cited: Whistler 10879
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 51)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 51)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 47)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 52)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘apai Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 97)
Voucher cited: Soakai 655
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 97)
Voucher cited: Soakai 985 (EI)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 97)
Vouchers cited: Moseley s.n., Soakai 926
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 97)
Vouchers cited: Crosby 186, Soakai 900
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Mountain slopes, forests". Hainan, Yunnan
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) probably native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 89)
Weed of uncertain origin
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) probably native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 52-53)
As Brachiaria paspaloides (Presl) C.E. Hubb.


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This page was created on 21 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 16 MAR 2012.