Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Setaria verticillata
(L.) P.Beauv., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Panicum verticillatum L.; Pennisetum verticillatum R. Br.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: dao ci gou wei cao

English: bristly foxtail, bur bristle grass, bur grass, foxtail, hooked bristlegrass, rough bristle grass, whorled pigeon grass

French: setaire verticillée

Hawaiian: mau‘ pilipili

Spanish: almorejo, amor de hortelano, carreig, cola de zorro, panissola, pata de gallina, pega-pega, rabo de zorro

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Tufted annuals; culms (2-) 3-10 dm tall, often geniculate and branching at lower nodes, glabrous except above near the panicles.  Sheaths compressed-keeled, glabrous, the upper margins ciliate; ligule ciliate, 0.7-2 mm long; blades flat, 5-10 (-13) mm wide, glabrous to scaberulous, sometimes sparsely pilose, margins scabrous.  Panicles yellowish-green to purple-tinged, densely flowered, cylindrical, (2-) 4-10 (-12) cm long, axis densely retrorsely hispidulous, primary branches short, verticillate, spikelets several to numerous per branch, subtended by 1 (-2) bristle(s), the bristles 2-4.5 (-6) mm long, retrorsely scabrous; glumes unequal, first glume broadly ovate, 0.5-0.7 (-1.2) mm long, ca. 1/3 as long as the spikelet, 1 (-3)-nerved, apex obtuse, sometimes mucronate, second glume ovate, 1.6-2 mm long, slightly shorter than first lemma, 5-7-nerved, apex rounded; first lemma 1.5-2.4 mm long, 7-nerved, apex rounded; first palea small, membranous; second lemma ovate, 1.8-2.3 mm long, weakly 3-nerved, finely transverse-rugose; second palea similar in texture to second lemma.  Caryopsis pale brown, broadly ovoid, slightly dorsiventrally compressed, 1.2-1.5 mm long" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1593).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "In general the weed grows in cultivated and disturbed places.  Because the seed heads stick to clothing, the plant soon finds its way into gardens.  It thrives in waste places as well.  In many places in the world it seems to prefer damp, shady sites" (Holm et al., 1977; pp. 416, 419).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and common in dry, disturbed areas, including coastal sites, along roadsides, urban areas, agricultural land, and kiawe forest, 0-820 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1593).

Propagation:  Seed. "The fruits, with their retrorsely barbed bristles, are distributed by small mammals; and of late by stockings and trousers" (Stone, 1970; p. 225).

Native range:  Europe, widely naturalized (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1593).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 23)
"An introduced weed, especially of cultivated and open land, as it is in most tropical and warm temperate regions of the world". Vouchers cited: A.C. Beauglehole 5455 (CANB, MEL), L.M. Bingley 9 (K)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 12)
"An introduced weed, especially of cultivated and open land, as it is in most tropical and warm temperate regions of the world". Voucher cited: F.E.T. Suckling (CHR)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 63)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hatuta'a (Hatutu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hatuta'a (Hatutu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J.-C. Thibault 1116 (PAP), J. Florence & M. Teikiteetini 9401 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: B. Toutain 4215 (PAP), D.H. Lorence & W.L. Wagner 6264 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 8503)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria verticillata
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Setaria aff. verticillata. Voucher cited: J. Florence 2880 (PAP)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 225)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 59)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
French Frigate Shoals introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1593)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1593)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1593)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1593)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1593)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2001) (p. 16)
Occasional in open areas.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1593)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau, Lehua Islet introduced
invasive
Wood, K. R./LeGrande, Maya (2006) (p. 27)
Voucher cited: K.R. Wood et al. 11349 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1593)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1593)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Nihoa Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1593)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1593)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1593)
Voucher cited: Heller 1961 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Pearl and Hermes Reef introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1593)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Pearl and Hermes Reef introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim (1999) (pp. 17, 18, 20)
North Island: Scattered over the entire island with a few large patches on the north part of the island. Collected on Seal/Kittery Island. Southeast Island: Large bands of it around the east side. Smaller patches on the west side.
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island introduced
Luomala, Katharine (1951) (p. 172)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
invasive
St. John, Harold (1960) (p. 323)
Vouchers cited: Fsoberg 24392, Fosberg 24327, Taylor 46-1288
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 4)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 24327 (US), Fosberg 24392 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. Raymond (1990) (p. 34)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 74)
In open waste places.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Henderson Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Paulay, Gustav/Spencer, T./Oliver, Royce (1989) (p. 3)
Voucher cited: Paulay & Spencer 660 (US)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Paulay, Gustav/Spencer, T./Oliver, Royce (1989) (p. 12)
Voucher cited: Paulay, Spencer & Schuster 674 (US)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10764 (PAP)
Adventice
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island introduced
invasive
Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. (1976) (p. 53)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Eastern Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-13)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1593)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-13)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 59)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 4)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 34470 (US)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 132)
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 418)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 418)
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 132)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 347)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 419)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
var. verticillata and var. ambigua Parl.
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 132)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 587)
"Commonly a garden and crop weed (especially of maize in North Id), waste land, roadsides, footpaths".
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 418)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 418)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 334)

Comments:  For Fijian plants previously identified as this species see Pennisetum glaucum.


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This page was created on 12 AUG 2005 and was last updated on 30 NOV 2008.