Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Pennisetum glaucum
(L.) R.Br., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

High risk, score: 12 (Go to the risk assessment).
var. 'purple majesty' Low risk (based on second screen), score: 3 (Go to the risk assessment).

Other Latin names:  Cenchrus americanus (L.) Morrone; Panicum glaucum L.; Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke; Pennisetum spicatum (L.) Körn.; Pennisetum typhoides (Burm. f.) Stapf & C. E. Hubb.; Pennisetum typhoideum Rich.; Setaria glauca (L.) P. Beauv.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: yu gu

English: bulrush millet, burr bristle grass, cat's tail grass, cattail millet, mongoose tail grass, pale pigeongrass, pearl millet, yellow bristle grass, yellow foxtail

French: mil à chandelle, mil chandelle, millet à chandelles, millet perle, pénicillaire, petit mil, sétaire glauque

Hindi: bajra

Japanese: kin-enokoro

Spanish: almorejo glauco, cola de zorra amarilla, hopillo, limpio frasco, mijo negro, rabo de zorro

Tongan: tetefa

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Annual, in tufted clumps, the culms slender, 15-75 cm high; leaf blades linear or linear-lanceolate, 5-30 cm long, 3-10 mm broad, glabrous or with some long white hairs toward base on upper surface; spike erect, cylindric, golden-brown in color, 1-15 cm long, 6-12 mm broad; spikelets broadly oblong, 3-3.5 mm long, the upper lemma rugose; spikelets subtended by 4-12 bristles in each involucre, these 3-10 mm long, finely antrorsely scabrous"  (Smith, 1979; pp. 347-348).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  In Fiji, "a very common grass found from sea level to an elevation of several hundred meters along roadsides and tracks, in cultivated areas such as rice fields, on dry open hillsides and open rocky places, in swampy areas, and on the inner edges of mangrove swamps.  ...a weed of cultivation and waste places." (Smith, 1979; pp. 347-348). In New Caledonia, "commun comme mauvaise herbe" (MacKee, 1994; p. 62).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Warmer parts of the north temperate zone of the Old World, but now widely distributed in America, Australia, and the tropical areas of the Old World" (Smith, 1979; pp. 347-348).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Voucher cited: Whistler 3184
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1990) (voucher ID: PTBG 9105)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria glauca
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 96)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Anon. (1988)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1994) (voucher ID: PTBG 26892)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria glauca
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1993) (voucher ID: PTBG 27474)
Taxon name on voucher: Setaria glauca
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 347-350)
As Setaria glauca. Voucher cited: DA 9071
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Nggamea Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 347-350)
As Setaria glauca. Voucher cited: DA 8984
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 347-350)
As Setaria glauca. Voucher cited: Bryan 609
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 347-350)
As Setaria glauca. Vouchers cited: Smith 8125, DA 8909, DA 8910
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 347-350)
As Setaria glauca. Vouchers cited: Smith 6631, DA 8744, DA 8731, DA 8858
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 347-350)
As Setaria glauca. Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 1011
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 347-350, 359)
As Setaria glauca; vouchers cited: Gillespie 4150.1, DA 2349, DA 8278, DA 7996, DA 9028, Smith 9455, DA 8649, DA 7317, DA 7800, DA 7944, DA 8129, DA 7789, DA 730, DA 3637, DA 8691, DA 9346, Gillespie 3607, DA 7776, DA 7684, DA 7728, DA 7647, Degener & Ordonez 13514, DA 9088, DA 8610; also as Pennisetum americanum (L.) K. Schum.; vouchers cited: DA 5621, DDA 3600, DA 3601, DA 3602, DA 3603, DA 3604, DA 3618, DA 3623, DA 3170
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 344)
As Setaria glauca (L.) P. Beauv.; voucher cited: BRY 26013
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2007) (pp. 29-30)
West Maui. Vouchers cited: Oppenheimer, R. Bartlett & G. Hansen H100402 (BISH, PTBG), Oppenheimer & G. Hansen H120401 (BISH, PTBG)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 62)
Voucher cited: Vieillard 1472
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 62)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 56)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 101)
As Setaria glaucum. Voucher cited: Soakai 909 (EI)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 101)
As Setaria glaucum. Vouchers cited: Setchell & Parks 15398, Soakai 164
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 101)
As Setaria glaucum. Voucher cited: Crosby 199
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
Burkill, I. H. (1900) (p. 60)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 124)
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 124)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 124)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. plate)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 124)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. plate)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)


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This page was created on 8 SEP 2002 and was last updated on 3 SEP 2012.