Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Saccharum spontaneum
L., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 17 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Bontoc: sálin

Cebuano: bogáng, bugáng, tigbáu

Chinese: tian gen zi cao

English: serio grass, wild cane, wild sugarcane

French: canne à sucre fourragère, canne sauvage

Iloko: liddá

Japanese: wase-abana

Kosraean: ac

Palauan: banga ruchel

Pohnpeian: ahlec, ahlek, alek

Tagalog: taláhib

Tahitian: to aheo

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Perennial grass spreading by stout rhizomes. Culms erect, 2-4 m or more in height. Leaf sheath glabrous, with overlapping margins; ligule membranous, 3-4 mm long, with a rounded apex fringed with scattered hairs and a dense row of hairs 2-3 mm long behind it. Leaf blade mostly 50-90 x 5-15 cm. Inflorescence a plumose panicle 25-60 cm long with numerous racemes 3-15 cm long, rachis and pedicels hirsute, rachis falling off in units comprising a pair of spikelets and the rachis below them. Spikelets lanceolate, 3-4 mm long, bearded at the base, the hairs silky, 2-3 times as long as the spikelet, in unequally stalked pairs. Glumes equal, as long as spikelet, glabrous on the back. Upper lemma nearly as long as spikelet, membranous" (Whistler, 1995; p. 183).

"Tall perennials, in habit much like the cultivated cane but somewhat more slender; differing chiefly in the hairy peduncles and the very fragile rachises" (Stone, 1970; p. 237).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "Found in waste areas, fallow fields, marshes, banks of streams and ponds, on sand dunes, along railroads and highways, and in or around fields.  It is a tropical and subtropical species most commonly encountered in central and southeastern Asia.  In New Guinea it grows from sea level to 1500 m and tolerates many soil textures and moisture levels'  (Holm et al., 1997; p. 695).

In Hawai‘i, "forming clumps or thickets in moist, disturbed areas such as along roadsides, 10-460 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1589).

Propagation:  Wind-dispersed seed.

Native range:  Old World Tropics.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane (2000) (p. 24)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 57)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 88-90)
Var. spontaneum; voucher cited: Fosberg 31284 (US, BISH, POM, CANB, P)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 588326)
Taxon name on voucher: Saccharum spontaneum L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 57)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Ulalu (Romonum) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 57)
var. insulare (Brongn.) Fosb. & Sachet
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 57)
var. insulare (Brongn.) Fosb. & Sachet
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island uncertain if native
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 88-90)
Var. insulare (Brongn.) Fosberg & Sachet; vouchers cited: Fosberg 26052 (US, BISH), Fosberg & Peizer 26022 (US, BISH), Takamatsu 25 (US), Wong 304 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 126723)
Taxon name on voucher: Saccharum spontaneum L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 126724)
Taxon name on voucher: Saccharum spontaneum L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 57)
var. insulare (Brongn.) Fosb. & Sachet
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 10)
var. insulare (Brongn.) Fosb. & Sachet. Voucher cited: KW 14105
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island uncertain if native
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 88-90)
Var. insulare (Brongn.) Fosberg & Sachet; vouchers cited: Lesson in 1825 (P, type), Fosberg 26644 (US, BISH, POM, NY, L)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (pp. 63-64)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 126722)
Taxon name on voucher: Saccharum spontaneum L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 432320)
Taxon name on voucher: Saccharum spontaneum L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 57)
var. insulare (Brongn.) Fosb. & Sachet
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 133)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2434 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 61)
Vouchers cited: J. Bee 35 (NY), A. Dores 209 (NY, PTBG), F.R. Fosberg 26254 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2434 (BISH), M. Takamatsu 605 (BISH), R. Lengsi 40 (NY), R. Lengsi 55 (NY), S.H. Riesenberg 44 (BISH), F. Sohl 14 (NY, PTBG)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island uncertain if native
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 88-90)
Var. insulare (Brongn.) Fosberg & Sachet; vouchers cited: Hallier 11 (HBG), Glassman 2434 (US), Fosberg 58356 (US), Riesenberg 44 (BISH), Fosberg 26254 (US, BISH, POM, NY, L), Gabung 4 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 39576)
Taxon name on voucher: Saccharum spontaneum L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 126718)
Taxon name on voucher: Saccharum spontaneum L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 126720)
Taxon name on voucher: Saccharum spontaneum L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 126725)
Taxon name on voucher: Saccharum spontaneum L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1999) (voucher ID: PTBG 34808)
Taxon name on voucher: Saccharum spontaneum L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2006) (voucher ID: PTBG 49039)
Taxon name on voucher: Saccharum spontaneum
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 57)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1957) (voucher ID: BISH 126719)
Taxon name on voucher: Saccharum spontaneum L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 237)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 57)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 88-90)
Var. spontaneum; vouchers cited: Fosberg 46219 (US, GUAM), Stone 4287 (US, GUAM), Fosberg 35220 (US, BISH, POM, MO), Fosberg 35292 (US), Fosberg 35580 (US, BISH, POM, MO, BRI, TI), P. H. Moore 830 (US)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 561370)
Taxon name on voucher: Saccharum spontaneum L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 588318)
Taxon name on voucher: Saccharum spontaneum L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 588319)
Taxon name on voucher: Saccharum spontaneum L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 588324)
Taxon name on voucher: Saccharum spontaneum L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 649442)
Taxon name on voucher: Saccharum spontaneum L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 1000144)
Taxon name on voucher: Saccharum spontaneum L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1589)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1589)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 62)
Voucher cited: Vieillard 1510
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 57)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 86)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island possibly native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 88-90)
Var. spontaneum; vouchers scited: Takamatsu 1307 (US), Timberlake & Payne 3132 (US), Timberlake 3094 (US), Timberlake 3117 (US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 21)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1997) (voucher ID: BISH 697859)
Taxon name on voucher: Saccharum spontaneum L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3094)
Taxon name on voucher: Saccharum spontaneum L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 57)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island possibly native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 88-90)
Var. spontaneum; vouchers cited: Stone 4606 (US), Stone 4589 (US), Salsedo 306 (US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1962) (voucher ID: BNM 154)
Taxon name on voucher: Saccharum spontaneum L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1970) (voucher ID: BNM 153)
Taxon name on voucher: Saccharum spontaneum L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 57)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island possibly native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 88-90)
Var. spontaneum; voucher cited: Timberlake 3131 (US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 21)
Voucher: Lorence 9772 (PTBG, BNM)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3131)
Taxon name on voucher: Saccharum spontaneum L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 64)
Taxon name on voucher: Saccharum spontaneum L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 57)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island possibly native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 88-90)
Var. spontaneum; voucher cited: Fosberg 25648 (US, BISH, POM,NY, L)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 697522)
Taxon name on voucher: Saccharum spontaneum L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 57)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 90)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island possibly native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 88-90)
Var. spontaneum; voucher cited: Fosberg 47634 (US, BISH, POM, NY, L)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 588709)
Taxon name on voucher: Saccharum spontaneum L.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 46)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
New Britain Island   Burcham, L. T. (1948) (p. 420)
Voucher cited: Burcham 142 (US)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (pp. 32-33)
In open areas at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,500 m, often gregarious and almost exclusively occupying large areas.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 68)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 402129)
Taxon name on voucher: Saccharum spontaneum L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Whitmore, T. C. (1969) (p. 261)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 106)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 316)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 346)
On hillslopes, plains, riverbank and pebble beaches.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 76)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 126)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 316)

Comments:  Two varieties present in Micronesia (both are considered native there).

On U.S. Federal noxious weed list.

The patch seen on Rota is located across from the Peace Memorial (Space et al., 2000).

Reported invasive in Panama (introduced to control erosion along the Panama Canal and now invasive—Georgina Cullman pers. com.)


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 30 NOV 2008.