Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Ricinus communis
L., Euphorbiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

Reject, score: 8 (Go to the risk assessment (Australia)).
High risk, score: 21 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific)).
Reject, score: 24 (Go to the risk assessment (U.S.)).
Reject, score: 24 (Go to the risk assessment (U.S. (Florida))).

Common name(s): [more details]

Austral: tiarili

Chamorro: agaliya

Chinese: bi ma

English: castor bean, castor-oil plant

Fijian: belenivavalagi, mbele ni vavalagi, toto ni vavalagi, totonivavalagi, utouto

French: ricin

Hawaiian: ka‘apehā, kamakou, koli, lā‘au ‘aila, pa‘aila

Maori (Cook Islands): pākarāna, pākarāni, tuitui, tuitui papa‘ā, tuitui papa‘ā

Marquesan: pititu

Niuean: tuitui, tuitui fua ikiiki

Palauan: gelug, uluchula skoki

Samoan: lama pālagi, lama pālagi

Spanish: higuerilla, palma christi, ricino

Tahitian: tiairi papa‘a, tiairi popa‘a

Tongan: lepo, lepo hina, lepo kula

Tuamotuan: tiairi

Wallisian: lepo

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "A coarse subshrub, erect, branching, glabrous, somewhat glaucous, the leaves alternate, palmately lobed, purplish when young, subpeltate, lobes usually 5 or 7, serrate, sharply acute; blades 20-60 cm long; petiole about the same length, a gland at apex; panicles terminal, or some axillary; flowers monoecious, apetalous, male clusters; female flowers with caducous, spathaceous calyx, ovary 3-celled, styles spreading, usually bifid; capsule ovoid, softly spiny, 1-1.5 cm long, purplish-brown, dehiscent; seeds oblong-ellipsoid, variously mottled with brown, black and gray" (Stone, 1970; p. 388).

Habitat/ecology:  "Grass- and heathland, riparian habitats, disturbed sites.  This highly variable plant occurs with many races.  It is a fast growing and short-lived thicket forming plant that shades out native species.  Establishment depends on disturbance"  (Weber, 2003; p. 360).  This fast-growing tree can reach heights of 10 m. It forms somewhat ephemeral thickets which can shade out other species. It grows in dry and mesic habitats from sea level to 1,200 m (C. W. Smith, 1985; p. 201).  Seeds are toxic. 

In Fiji, "found at elevations from near sea level to 200 m or probably higher, cultivated in villages and gardens and also naturalized in thickets and waste places and along roadsides"  (A. C. Smith, 1981; pp. 499-500).  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and sometimes common in low elevation, dry, disturbed habitats, 0-500 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 629). In Tonga, "occasional in waste areas" (Yuncker, 1959; p. 164). In New Caledonia, "assez commun aujourd'hui en fourrés secondaires" (MacKee, 1994; p. 54). Arid lowlands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; p. 141).  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Low altitude, interior valleys; coastal mountains, 500-2000 m; coastal areas, 0 - 500 m.  Somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 3-5 months, precipitations of 400-800 mm. are concentrated in winter; dry, arid areas, with long drought periods of 6-10 months, precipitations of 100 mm-300 mm. are concentrated in winter. Fully exposed to the sun, level areas or slopes facing north; some shadow, some protection against direct sunlight, some shadow from vegetation, filtering about 20-40% of light"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  The seed pod explodes when ripe, scattering the seeds. Although rodents and granivorous birds may disperse some seeds, man is the principal agent. "Seed is spread by floodwaters, in mud adhering to boots, vehicles or machinery, and in garden waste and soil" (Smith, 2002; p. 36).

Native range:  Probably Africa, now introduced throughout the tropics.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 37)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 206)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 19)
"A weed of waste ground". Vouchers cited: J. Pickard 2656 (NSW); 1920, J.L. Boorman (NSW)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 9)
"Locally common as a weed of waste ground". Vouchers cited: W.R. Sykes NI 885 (CHR), W.R. Sykes NI 516 (CHR)
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (p. 29)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 557)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 557)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 31)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 2153 (US), Fosberg 31585 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Aguijan (Agiguan, Aguihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 31)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 1934 (US), Fosberg 31729 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 31)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 1886 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 81668)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 31)
Voucher cited: Evans 2341 (US, BISH)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 81669)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 144169)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 14)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 664487)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 144156)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Baltra Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 697229)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Udot Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1948) (voucher ID: BISH 144167)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 359)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinis communis L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 499-500)
Voucher cited: DA 11518
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 499-500)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 643
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 499-500)
Vouchers cited: DA 11358, DA 10269, Smith 9152, DA 5866
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 697228)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 135-137)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 135-137)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 135-137)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 40939)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maiao (Maiaoiti, Mauiti, Tupuaemanu) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 135-137)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maiao (Maiaoiti, Mauiti, Tupuaemanu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 113)
Voucher cited: C. Cartier 212
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 135-137)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 113)
Voucher cited: Moore 650
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 135-137)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 113)
Vouchers cited: Setchell & Parks 262, Florence 2441
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 135-137)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2441 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 558028)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 558029)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tupai Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 135-137)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Hao (Hau) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 135-137)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Hao (Hau) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 135-137)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 3011 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 492105)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 135-137)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10194 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Toau (Tovau) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 135-137)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Toau (Tovau) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 135-137)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5610 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 405424)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 553004)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 135-137)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 144161)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 144162)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 144163)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 135-137)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 405366)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 624084)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 135-137)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6134 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 405422)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 552796)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1934) (voucher ID: BISH 405448)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 388)
Voucher cited: Stone 4181 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 144168)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1962) (voucher ID: BISH 144170)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 629)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 629)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 629)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 629)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 629)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 629)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 629)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 629)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
invasive
Toyoda, Takeshi (2003) (p. 287)
Naturalized
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 145)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 10)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1972) (voucher ID: PTBG 31537)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 145)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 10)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ailinglaplap (Ailinglapalap) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ailinglaplap (Ailinglapalap) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 144173)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Bikini (Pikinni) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. Raymond (1990) (p. 36)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1960) (p. 330)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 24377, St. John 23701
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 24377 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 144171)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 144172)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. Raymond (1990) (p. 36)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 95)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (pp. 134-135)
Vouchers cited: Scully 137N (US?), Thaman & Manner 145 (SUVA)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Tiga introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 54)
Voucher cited: MacKee 45845
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 380)
Assez commune en fourrés secondaires.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 54)
Vouchers cited: Baudouin 251 s.loc., MacKee 15519, MacKee 31734
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 54)
Voucher cited: Baumann 13913
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 106)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 634)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 95)
Voucher cited: CHR 169720
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 19)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 25)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 74)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9731 (BISH)
"Frequent in thickets and waste areas".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 10)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 16, 88)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 16, 90)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 81685)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 358)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinis communis L.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 309)
Common in native gardens but never wild.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 64)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 447)
In the settled areas, in open waste places. Prehistoric introduction.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 135-137)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 39)
Voucher cited: St. John 15025
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 12)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 12)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1979) (voucher ID: BISH 439347)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1948) (voucher ID: BISH 402109)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 96)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 106)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 74)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 164)
"Occasional throughout Tonga".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 62)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 164)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15618
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1987) (voucher ID: BISH 603541)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 56)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 25)
Voucher cited: Ilolahia 153
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 164)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15110
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 77869)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 697227)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 3299)
Taxon name on voucher: Ricinus communis
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 68)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 25)
Voucher cited: Soakai 1027
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 164)
Cited: Crosby.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Burkill, I. H. (1900) (p. 54)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island introduced
invasive
Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. (1976) (p. 57)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-12)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 144)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1969) (p. 11)
Persisting from cultivation.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 96)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 33)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 19)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
Cronk, Q. C. B./Fuller, J. L. (2001) (p. 190)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 36)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 36)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Belov, Michail (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 309)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 187)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 309)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 309)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 309)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 309)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 309)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 309)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 309)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 186)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 309)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
Weber, Ewald (2003) (p. 360)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 634)
"Waste places, coastal cliffs, or as a casual in gardens".
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 75)
Naturalised
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 309)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 126)
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 37)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
Topp, J. M. W. (1988) (p. 14)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 27)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Envahissant principalement dans les milieux perturbés.
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Addu Atoll   Spicer, R. A./Newberry, D. MacC. (1979) (p. 13)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 25)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 36843 (US)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 122)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Alphonse Island   Robertson, I. A. D./Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 181)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2835 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Cousin Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 28)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 52165 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
D'Arros Island   Stoddart, D. R./Coe, M. J./Fosberg, F. R. (1979) (p. 23)
Voucher cited: Stoddart 7212 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Marie-Louise Island   Wilson, J. R. (1983) (p. 191)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Sporadic on Guam, a pest species in Hawai‘i. Quite prevalent in Samoa (Space & Flynn, 2002) and Tonga (Space & Flynn, 2001).

A noxious weed in South Africa.

A declared noxious weed in the Northern Territory, Australia (Smith, 2002; p. 36).

Planting of this species is prohibited in Miami-Dade County, Florida (U.S.) (Hunsberger, 2001).

Control: 

Physical:  "Small populations can be controlled by hand-pulling.  Larger infestations can be controlled by repeated cultivation"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Chemical: Glyphosate or picloram + 2,4-D applied as a foliar spray. For larger plants, slash and paint the stumps with picloram + 2,4-D or triclopyr (Parsons and Cuthberson, 1992; pp. 431-433).  "Sensitive to 2,4-D and other hormone-type herbicides.  Triclopyr ester, 10% product in oil applied to basal bark, provided good control.  HAVO staff reported control with foliar application of triclopyr ester at 1% of product or with cut-stump application of triclopyr amine at 10% of product (Chris Zimmer, HAVO)  (Motooka et al., 2003).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 22 DEC 2012.