Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Polygala paniculata
L., Polygalaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: yuan zhui hua yuan zhi

English: island snake-root

Fijian: ai roi ni turanga (chief's fan), airoinituraga, mindi, senikuila, tamoli, teketekeniulumatua, tekiteki ni ulumatua

Kwara‘ae: babatana, sasalo

Palauan: keskus ra mekesong

Pohnpeian: pwohnkisinpwil, pwonkisinpwil, sin pwil, tuhke pwohnkisinpwil, tuhke pwohnkisinpwil kerengireng, tukehn kisinpwil

Samoan: fua lili‘i, fua lili‘i, fua paepae, fua paepae, namupululole, pulunamulole, pulunamulole

Spanish: hoja de higo, ipecacuana, lanillo, orosne, parikuá-muranó, yerba de la leche

Habit:  herb

Description:  "A small, erect, glandular, annual herb up to60 cm tall; leaves linear, 1-1.8 cm long, less than 3 mm wide; flowers in terminal racemes up to 8 cm long, small, white, crowded; flower nearly 3 mm long; fruit about 3 mm long; seeds very small (less than 3 mm long), black but with tiny white hairs."  (Stone, 1970)"Annual herbs; stems erect to ascending, 1-5 dm long, usually many-branched, puberulent, roots with bubblegum-like odor.  Leaves numerous, lower ones often whorled, oblong-lanceolate to linear, 1-2.5 cm long, 0.1-0.4 cm wide, 1-nerved, glabrous, apex acute, tapering to base.  Flowers ca. 2 mm long, in axillary or pseudoterminal, slender racemes 3-12 cm long; outer sepals green, elliptic, half as long as inner ones, inner sepals (wings) petaloid, elliptic, ca. 2 mm long, 3-nerved; lateral petals narrowly ovate, the keel appendaged.  Fruit oblong, nearly wingless, as long as or longer than inner sepals, glabrous.  Seeds black, ellipsoid, pubescent with short white hairs, aril small, with 2 membranous appendages"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1058, 1888).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in mesic to wet, disturbed areas, 40-1,100 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1058).  In Fiji, "abundantly naturalized from near sea level to 1,127 m as a weed in gardens, canefields, and waste places, along roadsides, on dry hillsides, in thickets, and on the edges of forest" (Smith, 1985; p. 723).  In New Guinea, "a plant of grasslands, roadsides and headlands, appearing as a weed of plantations (particularly at higher altitudes) when larger weeds have been suppressed. From near sea level to 2000 m" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 136). In New Caledonia, "espèce d'introduction récente, vite devenue très répandue et localement abondante, parfois en forêt peu dégradée sur substrat ultrabasique" (MacKee, 1994; p. 116). "Occasional in disturbed places and roadsides" (Whistler, 1988; p. 33).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Tropical America from Mexico and the West Indies to Brazil, unintentionally introduced into Java in 1845 or 1846 and now widespread in Malesia, Micronesia, and eastward" (Smith, 1985; p. 723).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 53)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 34847)
Taxon name on voucher: Polygala paniculata L.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9175, Whistler 1315
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 44)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9175 (BISH)
American Samoa
Swain's Island
Swain's Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1983) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: Whistler 3358
Uncommon.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 79)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1992) (voucher ID: PTBG 16359)
Taxon name on voucher: Polygala paniculata
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island native
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 41)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island native
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 41)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island native
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 41)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 130)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 130)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 22)
Voucher cited: Lorence 7852 (PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 63)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 21011)
Taxon name on voucher: Polygala paniculata L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 130)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 55)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2431
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 124)
Vouchers cited: M.J. Balick 4011 (NY, PTBG), M.J. Balick 4222 (BISH, NY, PTBG), M.J. Balick 4368 (NY), A. Dores 2 (BISH, NY, PTBG), A. Dores 199 (NY, PTBG), T.W. Flynn 6292 (AD, NY, PTBG, US), F.R. Fosberg 58438 (BISH), R. Gallen 118 (NY, PTBG), S.F. Glassman 2431 (BISH), K. Nagata 1485 (BISH), L. Stemmermann 2935 (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1999) (voucher ID: PTBG 34975)
Taxon name on voucher: Polygala paniculata L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 46201)
Taxon name on voucher: Polygala paniculata L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 41203)
Taxon name on voucher: Polygala paniculata L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 24671)
Taxon name on voucher: Polygala paniculata L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 43546)
Taxon name on voucher: Polygala paniculata
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 130)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island native
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Evans, M. (1969) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 46667 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 130)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 723-724)
Voucher cited: Smith 103
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 723-724)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 880
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 723-724)
Voucher cited: DA 8898
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 723-724)
Vouchers cited: DA 5017, Greenwood 461, Bierhorst F91
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 723-724)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 980
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 723-724)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 461A, Smith 4265, DA 2421, DA 10171, DA 10537, DA 9520, DA 9908, Gillespie 3420, Smith 7224, DA 10583, DA 5945, DA 12229
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Yasawas Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 723-724)
Voucher cited: St. John 18084
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 362)
Voucher cited: Stone 3861 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 130)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1987) (voucher ID: PTBG 23435)
Taxon name on voucher: Polygala paniculata
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1058)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy W./Wagner, Warren L. (1995) (p. 48)
Vouchers cited: L. Hume & R. Levine 399 (BISH, MO, PTBG, US), L. Hume & J. Spinnier 515 (BISH, PTBG, US)
Common in disturbed land and along roadsides.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2007) (p. 30)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer & J. Penniman H50610 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1058)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Fosberg & Sylva 55450 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Meidell, J. Scott/Bartlett, R. T. (1999) (p. 10)
West Maui. Vouchers cited: A.C. Medeiros 544 (BISH), Meidell & Oppenheimer 164 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2006) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H40401 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1058)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 130)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (pp. 181-182)
Voucher cited: Hassall 203 (SUVA)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 382)
Vite devenue très répandue et localement abondante, parfois en forêt peu dégradée sur substrat ultrabasique.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 116)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 2421, MacKee 4313, MacKee 11840, MacKee 22005, MacKee 30361, MacKee 31256, Bamps 5844 (NOU), MacKee 3611, MacKee 45782, Koyama & al. 4261
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 116)
Voucher cited: Lauri 86 (NOU)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 170)
Voucher cited: CHR 168711
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 33)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 42)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 46)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 104)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 130)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 102)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 64)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (2007) (voucher ID: BNM 4404)
Taxon name on voucher: Polygala paniculata L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (2007) (voucher ID: BNM 4417)
Taxon name on voucher: Polygala paniculata L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3060)
Taxon name on voucher: Polygala paniculata L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1970) (voucher ID: BNM 617)
Taxon name on voucher: Polygala paniculata L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1996) (voucher ID: BNM 26374)
Taxon name on voucher: Polygala paniculata L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3099)
Taxon name on voucher: Polygala paniculata L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1977) (voucher ID: BNM 960)
Taxon name on voucher: Polygala paniculata L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1984) (voucher ID: PTBG 23516)
Taxon name on voucher: Polygala paniculata
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2007) (voucher ID: PTBG 49069)
Taxon name on voucher: Polygala paniculata
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 130)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 98)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 619)
Taxon name on voucher: Polygala paniculata L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 618)
Taxon name on voucher: Polygala paniculata L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1977) (voucher ID: BNM 10077)
Taxon name on voucher: Polygala paniculata L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1967) (voucher ID: BNM 616)
Taxon name on voucher: Polygala paniculata L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1966) (voucher ID: BNM 615)
Taxon name on voucher: Polygala paniculata L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1966) (voucher ID: BNM 1325)
Taxon name on voucher: Polygala paniculata L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1966) (voucher ID: BNM 613)
Taxon name on voucher: Polygala paniculata L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1966) (voucher ID: BNM 614)
Taxon name on voucher: Polygala paniculata L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 1326)
Taxon name on voucher: Polygala paniculata L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 130)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 98)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 64)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 130)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 98)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 106)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 64)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerchong Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 64)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
invasive
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 293)
Lae, on Huon Gulf, at the margins of grassland, abundant.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
New Britain Island introduced
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 293)
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 53)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 136)
Widely spread, from neaar sea level to 2000 m.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 317)
Taxon name on voucher: Polygala paniculata
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 723-724)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 33)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 101)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 293)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 723-724)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 37)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 33)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 189)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 189)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Low elevations, Guangdong.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 286)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 186)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 71)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Low elevations.


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This page was created on 26 JUL 2002 and was last updated on 21 OCT 2006.