Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Pithecellobium dulce
(Roxb.) Benth., Fabaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 14 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Mimosa dulcis Roxb.

Common name(s): [more details]

Carolinian: ghamasiligh

Chamorro: camachili, kamachile, kamachile, kamachiles, kamachili, kamachili, kamatire

Chinese: niu ti dou

Chuukese: kamachuri

English: Madras thorn, Manila tamarind, sweet inga

French: campèche, pois sucré, tamarin de l'Inde

Hawaiian: ‘opiuma

Hindi: kataiya

Japanese: kamatire, kinkame, kinkizyu

Palauan: kamatsíri, kamatsiri

Pohnpeian: gamachil

Spanish: guamúchil, haumúchil, madre de flecha

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Small to medium tree, the trunk spiny; leaves bipinnate, each pinna with a single pair of leaflets; stipules spinose; leaflets asymmetric, ovate-oblong, mostly a little over 2 cm long or up to 4 cm long, longer than the petiole; flowers greenish-white, fragrant, sessile in dense heads; calyx grayish-puberulent; stigma minute, capitate; pod irregularly swollen, twisted strongly, up to 12 cm long but seemingly shorter because of coiling, usually 6-8-seeded; pod with an inner sweetish white edible pulp (the funicules); seeds black" (Stone, 1970; pp. 302-303).

Description from Flora of China online.

Habitat/ecology:  This thorny, deciduous tree grows up to 10 m tall, forming impenetrable thickets. It is relatively resistant to fire and resprouts rapidly by basal or aerial shoots.  It is found from sea level to 300 m elevation in dryer habitats (C. W. Smith, 1985; p. 199). In Hawai‘i, "cultivated, often as a street tree, now sparingly naturalized in dry to mesic, disturbed areas, 3-50 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 691) "displaces other plants in dry pastures and disturbed natural areas"  (Motooka et al., 2003).  In Fiji, "cultivated in fairly dry areas near sea level and also naturalized in the dry zone along roadsides, etc."  (A. C. Smith, 1985; pp. 81-82). In New Caledonia, "localement naturalisé aujourd'hui, notamment dans les régions de Dumbéa et de Boulouparis" (MacKee, 1994; p. 79). "A drought-tolerant tree well suited to growing under seasonally dry conditions" (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 56).

Sap can cause eye irritation and skin welts.

Propagation:  "The flowers are pollinated by bees, and the seeds are unusual among legumes in that they have large fleshy brightly coloured arils which make them attrative to birds, which disperse the seeds after eating the juicy pulp. Being legumes, the seeds are likely to have prolonged dormancy in the soil." (Swarbrick, 1997; p 56).

Native range:  "Introduced to Guam from Mexico via the Philippines, probably for the tannin content of the bark (25%) and the edible pulp of the fruit.  It has been in Asian countries for a long time.  In Guam it is quite common, especially near villages." (Stone, 1970; pp. 302-303).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (pp. 39-40, 43)
"Lefeuvre et al., 2005. Nous n’avons pas vues lors de cette" (Meyer, 2008).
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 94)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 28)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 2195 (US), Fosberg 31564 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Aguijan (Agiguan, Aguihan) Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 34)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Aguijan (Agiguan, Aguihan) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1952) (voucher ID: BISH 155391)
Taxon name on voucher: Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 94)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 28)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 31747 (US, BISH, Fo), Falanruw 1945 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Asuncion Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 94)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Asuncion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 28)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 2293 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 102)
"Potential invader".
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 94)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 28)
Vouchers cited: Anderson 594 (US, BISH, Fo), Moore 312 (US), Bonham 23 (US,Fo)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 635224)
Taxon name on voucher: Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 1000088)
Taxon name on voucher: Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 94)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 155398)
Taxon name on voucher: Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 660183)
Taxon name on voucher: Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1966) (voucher ID: PTBG 23136)
Taxon name on voucher: Pithecellobium dulce
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 94)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 94)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 28)
Voucher cited: Evans 2338 (US, BISH, Fo, NY)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 441693)
Taxon name on voucher: Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 571767)
Taxon name on voucher: Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 94)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 155397)
Taxon name on voucher: Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 155405)
Taxon name on voucher: Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1935) (voucher ID: BISH 155403)
Taxon name on voucher: Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1935) (voucher ID: BISH 155404)
Taxon name on voucher: Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 94)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 29)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 94)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 29)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 94)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 29)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 94)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 79)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 96)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 94)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 155402)
Taxon name on voucher: Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 81-82)
Voucher cited: DA 328
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 81-82)
Vouchers cited: DA 11469, DA 16498, DA 462, Greenwood 745A, DA 3292, DA 14361, Greenwood 745
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 14446)
Taxon name on voucher: Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 34841)
Taxon name on voucher: Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 158)
Vouchers cited: Setchell & Parks 417, Florence 4661
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 4661 (PAP)
Cultivée. Rarement planté à Tahiti.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 558093)
Taxon name on voucher: Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 302-303)
Vouchers cited: Stone 3901 (GUAM), Stone 4985 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 94)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 155392)
Taxon name on voucher: Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 155393)
Taxon name on voucher: Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 155395)
Taxon name on voucher: Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1962) (voucher ID: BISH 155396)
Taxon name on voucher: Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1962) (voucher ID: BISH 155401)
Taxon name on voucher: Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1960) (voucher ID: BISH 402090)
Taxon name on voucher: Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1960) (voucher ID: BISH 567758)
Taxon name on voucher: Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 573295)
Taxon name on voucher: Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 660182)
Taxon name on voucher: Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 660539)
Taxon name on voucher: Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1980) (voucher ID: PTBG 22658)
Taxon name on voucher: Pithecellobium dulce
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 691-692)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 691-692)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, Randal T. (2002) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H109917 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 691-692)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 691-692)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 691-692)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 691-692)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 94)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 134)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 79)
Vouchers cited: Gervais s.n., Le Rat 301, MacKee 4463, MacKee 8320, Veillon 1438, Goy in MacKee 32601
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1956) (voucher ID: BISH 37548)
Taxon name on voucher: Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (pp. 5, 17)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 94)
Reported present by Fosberg but not seen by Space et al.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 16)
Not seen on this survey.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 155406)
Taxon name on voucher: Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 243)
At low and medium altitudes, in many regions thoroughly naturalized.
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island introduced
cultivated
Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. (1976) (p. 56)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-12)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1993) (voucher ID: BISH 633252)
Taxon name on voucher: Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1994) (voucher ID: BISH 659980)
Taxon name on voucher: Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (pp. 53-54)
Specimen in Townsville botanic gardens.
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 133)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 70)
Casual
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (pp. 56, 124)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   Stoddart, D. R./Taylor, J. D., eds. (1971) (p. 151)
Voucher cited: Stoddart 817 (K, US)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 34)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Cultivé/envahissant"
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Mauremootoo, J. (2004) (pp. 7, 8)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Rodrigues Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)

Comments:  A problem species in Hawai‘i, but does not seem to be a major problem in Micronesia.

Control: 

Physical: Mechanical removal is difficult because of resprouting.

Chemical: Larger trees can be cut and the stumps treated with glyphosate to prevent resprouting. Foliar and basal herbicide treatment may be effective on smaller trees and seedlings. "Probably sensitive to foliar application of triclopyr. Sensitive to cut-surface and basal bark applications of triclopyr and to soil applications of bromacil, hexazinone or tebuthiuron. Sensitive to basal bark applications of triclopyr ester at 2% product in diesel or to 20% in low volume applications"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Additional information:
Excerpt from the book "Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide" (Motooka et al., 2003). (PDF format).
Information from the World Agroforestry Centre's AgroForestryTree Database.
Information from the Purdue University NewCROP web site.
Fact sheet from "Common forest trees of Hawaii" (PDF format).
Warning brochure from the Government of Queensland, Australia (PDF format).

Additional online information about Pithecellobium dulce is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Pithecellobium dulce as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Pithecellobium dulce may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. 1976. The natural history of Johnston Atoll. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 192. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 479 pp.

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 0. Voucher specimen #BISH 155392 (Thompson, J.B. 262).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 0. Voucher specimen #BISH 155393 (Thompson, J.B. 388).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1918. Voucher specimen #BISH 155395 (Nelson, P. 93).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1935. Voucher specimen #BISH 155403 (Takamatsu, M. 127).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1935. Voucher specimen #BISH 155404 (Takamatsu, M. 100).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1936. Voucher specimen #BISH 155402 (Takamatsu, M. 1828).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 155397 (Fosberg, F.R. 24898).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 155398 (Fosberg, F.R. 24948).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 573295 (Fosberg, F.R. 25416).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 155405 (Wong, C.C.Y. 296).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 155406 (Fosberg, F.R. 32043).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1952. Voucher specimen #BISH 155391 (Kondo, Y.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1956. Voucher specimen #BISH 37548 (McKee, H.S. 4463).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1960. Voucher specimen #BISH 402090 (Dutton, L.S. 121).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1960. Voucher specimen #BISH 567758 (Dutton, L.S. 121).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1962. Voucher specimen #BISH 155396 (Stone, B.C.M. 3901).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1962. Voucher specimen #BISH 155401 (Stone, B.C.M. 3901).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 14446 (Parham, J.W. 14361).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1966. Voucher specimen #BISH 441693 (Evans, M. 2338).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1966. Voucher specimen #BISH 571767 (Evans, M. 2338).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1966. Voucher specimen #BISH 660182 (Evans, M. 1515).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1966. Voucher specimen #BISH 660183 (Evans, M. 1949).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 34841 (Koroiveibau, D. 16498).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1980. Voucher specimen #BISH 660539 (Fosberg, F.R. 59631).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 558093 (Florence, J. 4661).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1984. Voucher specimen #BISH 635224 (Herbst, D.R. 7245).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1984. Voucher specimen #BISH 1000088 (Herbst, D.R. 7245).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1993. Voucher specimen #BISH 633252 (E.J.Funk Wake 19).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1994. Voucher specimen #BISH 659980 (Herbst, D.R. 9689).

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. 2013. Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer (online resource).

Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. 1998. Potential environmental weeds in Australia: Candidate species for preventative control. Canberra, Australia. Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia. 208 pp.

Falanruw, Marjorie C./Maka, Jean E./Cole, Thomas G./Whitesell, Craig D. 1990. Common and scientific names of trees and shrubs of Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall Islands. Pac. SW Forest and Range Expt. Stn. Resource Bulletin PSW-67. 91 pp.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. 1975. Vascular flora of the northern Marianas Islands. Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 22:1-45.

Fosberg, F. R./Otobed, D./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L./Powell, D. A./Canfield, J. E. 1980. Vascular plants of Palau with vernacular names. Department of Botany, The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 43 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Glassman, S. F. 1952. The flora of Ponape. Bishop Mus. Bull. 209: 1-152.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre. 2011. International Legume Database & Information Service. Online searchable database.

Kato, Hidetoshi. 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium, Tokyo Metropolitan University. Personal communication.

Kueffer, C./Mauremootoo, J. 2004. Case studies on the status of invasive woody plant species in the western Indian Ocean. 3. Mauritius (islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Forestry Department, Forest Resources Division, Forest Resources Development Service, Working Paper FBS/4-3E. 35 pp.

Lavergne, Christophe. 2006. List des especes exotiques envahissantes a La Reunion. Unpublished manuscript (Excel file). .

Little, Elbert L./Skolmen, Roger G. 1989. Common forest trees of Hawaii (native and introduced). USDA Agriculture Handbook 679. Washington, D.C. 377 pp. + plates.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

Merrill, Elmer D. 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 2 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 530 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). In: Sherley, G. (tech. ed.). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. 190 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2008. Rapport de mission d'expertise a Rapa Nui du 02 au 11 Juin 2008: Plan d'action strategique pour lutter contre les plantes introduites envahissantes sur Rapa Nui (Île de pâques) [Strategic action plan to control invasive alien plants on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 62 pp. .

Motooka, Philip/Castro, Luisa/Nelson, Duane/Nagai, Guy/Ching, Lincoln. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii‘s Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa. 184 pp.

Motooka, Philip/Ching, Lincoln/Nagai, Guy. 2002. Herbicidal Weed Control Methods for Pasture and Natural Areas of Hawaii. Cooperative Extension Service, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawai‘i. CTAHR free publication WC-8.

Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, Randal T. 2002. New plant records from the main Hawaiian Islands. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2000. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 69:1-14.

Raulerson, L. 2006. Checklist of Plants of the Mariana Islands. University of Guam Herbarium Contribution 37:1-69. .

Raulerson, L./Rinehart, A. 1991. Trees and shrubs of the northern Mariana Islands. Saipan: Coastal Resources Management Office of the Governor, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands 96950. 119 pp.

Smith, Albert C. 1985. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 3. 758 pp.

Smith, Clifford W. 1985. Impact of Alien Plants on Hawai‘i's Native Biota. In: Stone, Charles P. and Scott, J. Michael, eds. Hawai‘i's terrestrial ecosystems: preservation and Management. Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii, Manoa.

Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie. 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on Invasive Plant Species. USDA Forest Service, Hilo, Hawai‘i. 227 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. 2000. Invasive plant species in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 41 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar. 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 174 pp.

Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd. 2008. Botanical survey of Midway Atoll. Prepared for: United States Fish and Wildlife Service. 27 pp. plus appendices.

Stoddart, D. R./Taylor, J. D., eds. 1971. Geography and ecology of Diego Garcia Atoll, Chagos Archipelago. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 149. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 237 pp.

Stone, Benjamin C. 1970. The flora of Guam. Micronesica 6:1-659.

Swarbrick, J. T. 1997. Environmental weeds and exotic plants on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean: a report to Parks Australia. 101 pp. plus appendix.

Swarbrick, John T. 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper no. 209. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 124 pp.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Vander Velde, Nancy. 2003. The vascular plants of Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Smithsonian Institution, Atoll Research Bulletin No. 503:1-141.

Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. 2013. Flora of Micronesia. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Welsh, S. L. 1998. Flora Societensis: A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Islands. E.P.S. Inc., Orem, Utah. 420 pp.

Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. 1999. Botanical survey of the United States of America Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Islands. Prepared for Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education and the U. S. Army Environmental Center. 111 pp.

Whistler, W. Arthur. 1996. Botanical survey of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipelago, British Indian Ocean Territory. Isle Botanica. 49 pp.

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 18 MAR 2012.