Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Pinus elliottii
Engl., Pinaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 2 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: shi di song

English: slash pine, swamp pine

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Trees to 30 m; trunk to 0.8 m diam., straight to contorted; crown conic, becoming rounded or flattened. Bark orange- to purple-brown, irregularly furrowed and cross-checked into large, irregularly rectangular, papery-scaly plates. Branches spreading to ascending; twigs stout (to ca. 1 cm thick), orange-brown, aging darker brown, rough-scaly. Buds cylindric, silvery brown, 1.5-2 cm; scale margins fringed. Leaves 2 or 3 per fascicle, spreading or ascending, persisting ca. 2 years, 15-20 (23) cm x 1.2-1.5 mm, straight, slightly twisted, pliant, yellow- to blue-green, all surfaces with stomatal lines, margins finely serrulate, apex abruptly acute to acuminate; sheath 1-2 cm, base persistent. Pollen cones cylindric, 30-40 mm, purplish. Seed cones maturing in 2 years, falling the year after seed-shed, single or in pairs, symmetric, lance-ovoid before opening, ovoid or ovoid-cylindric when open, (7-)9-18(-20) cm, light chocolate brown, on stalks to 3 cm; apophyses lustrous (as if varnished), slightly raised, strongly cross-keeled; umbo central, depressed-pyramidal, with short, stout prickle. Seeds ellipsoid, oblique-tipped; body 6-7mm, dark brown; wing to 20mm" (Kral, 1993).

Habitat/ecology:  Introduced as a timber species in subtropical and warm temperate areas worldwide.  "Grass- and heathland, scrub.  In the native range, this tree plrefers relatively moist soils.  The fast growing tree establishes dense stands that shade out native plants and prevent their regeneration.  Invaded grasslands are transformed over time into species poor shrubs and forests"  (Weber, 2003; p. 325).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Southeastern United States

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fiji Islands introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 116)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
Wester, Lyndon (1992) (p. 116)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2012) (p. 43)
Voucher cited: D. Lorence & T. Flynn 9515 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wysong, Michael/Hughes, Guy/Wood, K. R. (2007) (p. 6)
Voucher cited: Wysong 480 (BISH). "Infrequently seen naturalizing into the mixed mesic native forest zone below the original plantings".
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2012) (p. 43)
Voucher cited: A. Lau 2008061201 (BISH)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 65)
Voucher cited: MacKee 40484
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 65)
Voucher cited: Cherrier in MacKee 40593
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
Weber, Ewald (2003) (p. 325)
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
cultivated
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
"Sporadically naturalised around plantations".
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
"Sporadically naturalised around plantations".
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 33)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 70)
Cultivated only
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
South Africa
South Africa
South Africa (Republic of) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Control: 

Physical:  Hand pull or dig out seedlings and young trees, cut larger trees (Weber, 2003; p. 325).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 30 DEC 2003 and was last updated on 31 OCT 2012.