Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Ludwigia hyssopifolia
(G.Don) Exell, Onagraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Jussiaea hyssopifolia G. Don; Jussiaea linifolia Vahl

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: charguan asusuyan, titimo

Chinese: cao long

Fijian: nai qisa

Marshallese: utilolõb

Palauan: erur

Pohnpeian: delahrik

Spanish: mimbra

Habit:  herb

Description:  "An erect, annual herbaceous, marshy, or aquatic plant, at times seen on drier land, to 3 m high, sometimes persisting and becoming woody at the base; stems nearly glabrous, green but may have reddish or purplish coloration, marked with striations, usually branched above, may appear 3- or 4-angled, young growth and inflorescence minutely pubescent; leaves lanceolate to linear lanceolate, narrowly cuneate at base, acute to acuminate at tip, may be white-green, up to 10 cm long, 1 to 3 cm wide, petiole short, midrib may be white-green, margin may be serrulate, glabrous or with few short hairs at base of leaf; flowers small, axillary, solitary, sessile; calyx a tube surrounding the inferior ovary, forming at the top 4 lanceolate, acuminate sepals, 2 to 4 mm long, pubescent; petals 4, yellow or white fading to orange-yellow, ovate to elliptic, a little larger than sepals; style and stigma simple, style pale greenish-yellow, stigma globose, stamens 8, in this species filaments of the epipetalous stamens are 0.5 to 1 mm long, those of the episepalous being 1 to 2 mm long; fruit a capsule, cylindrical, 4-celled, up to 3 cm long, l to 0.2 mm wide, pubescent, subsessile, somewhat enlarged at top; seeds of two types: those of the upper part of capsule numerous, several rows per locule, ovoid, about 0.5 mm long, free, more pale brown than lower seeds; in lower capsule 1 row per locule, about 0.75 mm long, brown, each imbedded in a corky disc.  This plant may be distinguished from L. adscendens and L. octovalvis by its unusual dimorphous seeds"  (Holm et al., 1997; p. 450).

"Annual herb to 1 (rarely 2-3) m tall, young growth and inflorescence minutely puberulent; leaves lanceolate, up to 9 cm long and 3 cm wide, acuminate, cuneate basally, lateral nerves 11-17 pairs; petiole up to 1.8 cm long; sepals 4, 2-4 mm long, lanceolate; petals 4, yellow, 2-3 mm long, elliptic; stamens 8, slightly unequal, 0.5-2 mm long (excl. anthers); fruit capsular, finely puberulent, 1.5-3 cm long, about 1 mm thick, subsessile; seeds of 2 kinds, those of lower section of capsule 0.7-0.85 mm long, those in upper section 0.35-0.5 mm long"  (Stone, 1970; p. 457).

Habitat/ecology:  "It is known to frequent pools, shallow ditches, and river edges.  It grows in rice and in fallow garden lands and wastelands in humid areas.  In Borneo, it prospers in clearings on both heavy clay and coarse white sand, as well as in pools in eucalyptus savannahs.  It has been found at 1000 m in old volcanic mudstreams on Java" (Holm et al., 1997; p. 452).

In Guam, "a weed of ditches, ponds, rice-fields, etc., up to 500 m altitude"  (Stone, 1970; p. 457).  In Fiji, "occurs locally at low elevations as a naturalized weed 0.5-1 m high, found along roadsides, in ricefields, and in other wet places" (Smith, 1985; p. 381).  "Occasional in taro crops, pastures and wet roadside ditches" (Whistler, 1988; p. 31). In New Guinea (native), "a plant of wet places; swamps and stream edges, roadside ditches; often a weed of pastures. Mostly from sea level to 700 m" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 129); "a plant of wet places; swamps and stream edges, roadsides or shallow water ditches.  In Papuasia, it is widespread in the lowlands and up to c. 3000 m altitude"  (Conn, 1995; p. 210).

Propagation:  Seed. "The lower seeds in the capsule, being provided with floats, may be water-dispersed" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 129).

Native range:  Africa, Asia and the Pacific (Stone, 1970; p. 457).  "The place of origin of this pantropical weed is uncertain; it is relatively local in Africa and the Cape Verde Islands, also occurring from Ceylon, India, and southern China throughout Malesia to Micronesia and northern Australia, with apparently recent populations in Fiji and Samoa." (Smith, 1985; p. 381)   Fosberg et al. (1979; p. 195) list as native to Micronesia.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 31)
Voucher cited: Lamoureux 3052
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 195)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 94)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 21)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 24871)
Taxon name on voucher: Ludwigia hyssopifolia (G. Don) Exell
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 195)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 58)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2915 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 119)
Vouchers cited: M.J. Balick 4129 (NY, PTBG), E. Eperiam 3 (NY), F.R. Fosberg 58494 (BISH), F.R. Fosberg 60454 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2915 (BISH), N.L.. Krauss 1893C (BISH), N.L.H. Krauss 1894c (BISH), P. Raynor 138 (NY), M. Takamatsu 787 (BISH), M. Takamatsu 1040 (BISH), N.S. Tangalin 1270 (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1980) (voucher ID: PTBG 23347)
Taxon name on voucher: Ludwigia hyssopifolia
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2000) (voucher ID: PTBG 43408)
Taxon name on voucher: Ludwigia hyssopifolia
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2007) (voucher ID: PTBG 50094)
Taxon name on voucher: Ludwigia hyssopifolia
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 195)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 381)
Vouchers cited: DA 10825, DA 10050, DA 6025, DA 11736, DA L.10508
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 85)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 85)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 457)
Voucher cited: Rodin 819
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 195)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands   Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 195)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 195)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 195)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 101)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. Field notes)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1966) (voucher ID: BNM 587)
Taxon name on voucher: Ludwigia hyssopifolia (G. Don) Exell
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1970) (voucher ID: BNM 588)
Taxon name on voucher: Ludwigia hyssopifolia (G. Don) Exell
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3101)
Taxon name on voucher: Ludwigia hyssopifolia (G. Don) Exell
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 98)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 98)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 98)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 129)
Widespread, mostly from sea level to 700 m.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
Conn, Barry J., ed. (1995) (pp. 209-210)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 381)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 31)
Voucher cited: Parham 9018
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. Field notes.)
Voucher: Flynn 6937 (PTBG, US, SAMOA)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 321)
Taxon name on voucher: Ludwigia hyssopifolia (G.Don) Exell
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 41439)
Taxon name on voucher: Ludwigia hyssopifolia (G. Don) Exell
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 94)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Scattered to common in open wet often disturbed areas, streamsides, roadside ditches, clear agricultural land, or openings in moist forests; near sea level to 800 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 221)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 450)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Brunei
Brunei (Negara Brunei Darussalam)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 78)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 78)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 57)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Scattered to common in open wet often disturbed areas, streamsides, roadside ditches, clear agricultural land, or openings in moist forests; near sea level to 800 m.
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Ching-I Peng, ed. (2013)
"Weed of wet places at low elevations".
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 78)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 19)


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This page was created on 26 JUL 2002 and was last updated on 18 FEB 2007.