Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Lepidium virginicum
L., Brassicaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 17 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: bei mei du xing cai

English: least pepperwort, peppergrass, poor man's pepper, poor-man's pepperweed, Virginia cress, Virginia peppercress, Virginia pepperweed, wild peppercress, wild peppergrass

French: cresson sauvage, cresson savane, lépidie de Virginie, passerage de Virginie

Maori (Cook Islands): naunau

Niuean: momili

Spanish: cresón, culantrillo, escobilla, lentejilla, mancuerno, mastuerzo, mastuerzo silvestre

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual or biennial herbs; stems 2-7 dm long, usually single from base, branched above, occasionally many-branched, usually puberulent.  Basal leaves oblanceolate, 4-15 cm long, sharply toothed to pinnatifed, occasionally bipinnatifid, upper leaves much-reduced, oblanceolate to linear, margins dentate to entire.  Flowers in elongate racemes usually 1.5-8 cm long, nearly the same diameter throughout; sepals ca. 0.5 mm long, usually caducous, margins white; petals spatulate, ca. 0.6-1 mm long; stamens 2 (4, 6).  Silicles suborbicular to broadly elliptic, 2-4.2 mm long, the apical notch broad, prominent, the margins clearly exceeding the style.  Seeds 1.5-2 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 409).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in disturbed sites, 0-2,500 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 409).  In Niue, "a locally common weed of plantations and waste places"  (Sykes, 1970; p. 76).  "Occasional in disturbed places" (Whistler, 1988; p. 16). In Tonga, "a common dooryard and waste area weed" (Yuncker, 1959; p. 122).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  North and Central America; naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane (2000) (p. Voucher specimen)
Voucher: BMW 5815 (BISH, BRI, GUAM)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 32)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 32)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 32)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Alcedo, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Darwin, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Faraulep (Faraulap) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 83)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 83)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 288)
Vouchers cited: Stone 4000 (GUAM), Stone 4157 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 83)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 409)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy W./Wagner, Warren L. (1995) (p. 27)
Voucher cited: T. Flynn 4471 (BISH, F, MO, PTBG, US)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2003) (p. 26)
Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 010522-1 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2001) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 010522-1 (BISH). Occasional. Found near quarters.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2010) (p. 34)
Vouchers cited: Oppenheimer H10808 (BISH), Oppenheimer H30808 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 409)
Voucher cited: Lydgate s. n. (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 409)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 409)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Teraina (Washington) Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Ouvéa (Ouvea Atoll) introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 44)
Voucher cited: MacKee 18876
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Tiga introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 44)
Voucher cited: MacKee 45897
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 380)
Rudérale, nombreuses localités
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 44)
Vouchers cited: Däniker 717 (Z), MacDanield 2136, MacKee 22941, MacKee 22942, MacKee 40528
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 44)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 23463, MacKee 33814
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 76)
Voucher cited: CHR 170269
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 16)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 28)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (pp. 56-57)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9722 (BISH)
"Weed in plantations, but as yet not common".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 44)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1979) (voucher ID: BNM 1178)
Taxon name on voucher: Lepidium virginicum L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 83)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 106)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerchong Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1978) (voucher ID: BNM 1179)
Taxon name on voucher: Lepidium virginicum L.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 207)
A weed in towns, also in some regions occuring along sandy seashores.
Tokelau
Tokelau Islands
Tokelau Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 16)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 16)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 122)
"Throughout Tonga".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 122)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15418
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 122)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 15206, Hülimann 5
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 122)
Vouchers cited: Hülimann 645
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 409)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-10)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Victoria
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Fields, roadsides, waste places, grassy areas; near sea level to 1000 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Shandong, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 212-213)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 183)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 433)
"Waste land, railway ballast, roadsides".
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Fields, roadsides, waste places, grassy areas; near sea level to 1000 m.
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 37)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 26 JUL 2002 and was last updated on 17 MAY 2013.