Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Jacaranda mimosifolia
D.Don, Bignoniaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Low risk (based on second screen), score: 1 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Brazilian rose wood, green ebony, jacaranda

French: flamboyant bleu

Spanish: acacia celeste

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Trees 5-15 m tall.  Leaves bipinnately compound with 13-31 pinnae, each with 13-41 sessile leaflets, these 0.3-1.2 cm long, 0.1-0.4 cm wide, glabrous or slightly puberulent along the midrib and margins.  Flowers in open, terminal panicles, the branches puberulent, calyx reduced, broadly campanulate, 5-toothed, the teeth ca 1 mm long; corolla purplish blue, the tube white within, 2.4-5.2 cm long, 0.7-1.2 cm wide at the mouth, pubescent externally and within at the level of the stamens.  Capsules drying reddish brown, compressed-orbicular, 3.2-5.8 cm long, apex often shallowly emarginate, base truncate to subcordate.  Seeds 0.9-1.2 cm long, the wing more or less surrounding the seed body."  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 387)

"Tree to 15 m high"; leaves 15-40 cm long, the pinnae on each side of midrib 10-23, the leaflets numerous, the blades oblong, 5-10 x 2-3.5 mm; panicles lax, to 30 cm long, the flowers abundant; calyx to 2.5 mm long, the lobes less than 1 mm long; corolla 3-4 cm long, blue-lavender to purple, paler in throat; capsule suborbicular, 4.5-6 cm broad"  (Smith, 1991; p. 146).

Habitat/ecology:  "Bushland, grassland, wooded ravines and riverbanks.  A fast growing tree that resprouts easily if damaged.  The spreading growth habit and the dense foliage shade out native plants and prevent their regeneration.  Little is known on the ecology of this species"  (Weber, 2003; p. 219).

In Hawai‘i, a popular ornamental now naturalized in relatively dry to mesic areas (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 387).

Propagation:  Wind-dispersed seed.

Native range:  Northwestern Argentina and adjacent Bolivia, widely cultivated in warm and tropical regions.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 487, 533, 554)
"Este árbol muy utilizado de forma ornamental bajo clima subtropical fue plantado hace pocos años en un jardin del pueblo de San Juan Bautista donde parece crecer correctamente.  Hay que esperar que esta magnifica planta no presenta un peligro cualquiera para la flora nativa".
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island cultivated
Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 146)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2815 (PAP)
Cultivée. Rare à Tahiti.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 62)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 387)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2008) (pp. 24-25)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer, Perlman & Tangalin H10709 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 387)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 387)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (pp. 104-105)
Single tree planted as an ornamental.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 22)
Vouchers cited: Sarlin 252, Blanchon 1615 (NOU), MacKee 15303
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 43)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 81)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 444)
Occasionally cultivated for ornamental purposes.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 84)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Queensland Herbarium (2002) (p. 4)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (pp. 256-257)
Ornamental.
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
cultivated
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Cultivé/subspontané"

Comments:  "Jacaranda is a significant and successful invader in the northern and eastern parts of South Africa in savanna, riparian woodland and forests in sheltered situations.  The current rough estimate is that is has invaded about 1.8 million ha, mainly at very low densities." (David C. Le Maitre, communication to Aliens listserver)

Invasive in southeastern Queensland, Australia, but not yet a serious problem (Rachel McFadyen, communication to Aliens listserver).

Control: 

Physical:  Hand pull or dig out seedlings and young trees.

Chemical:  Cut large plants and treat the stumps with herbicide (Weber, 2003; p. 219).

Additional information:
Information from the World Agroforestry Centre's AgroForestryTree Database.

Additional online information about Jacaranda mimosifolia is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Jacaranda mimosifolia as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Jacaranda mimosifolia may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John. 2011. Naturalized species in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile. Unpublished spreadsheet.

Charles Darwin Foundation. 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Charles Darwin Foundation, Galapagos, Ecuador.

Charles Darwin Research Station. 2005. CDRS Herbarium records.

Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido. 2006. Nouveau catalogue de la flore vaculaire de l'archipel Juan Fernández (Chile) [Nuevo catálogo de la flora vacular del Archipélago Juan Fernández (Chile)]. Acta Bot. Gallica 153(4):399-587.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Lavergne, Christophe. 2006. List des especes exotiques envahissantes a La Reunion. Unpublished manuscript (Excel file). .

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

Merrill, Elmer D. 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 3 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 628 pp.

Oppenheimer, Hank. 2008. New Hawaiian plant records for 2007. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucias G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2007. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 100:22-38.

Queensland Herbarium. 2002. Invasive Naturalised Plants in Southeast Queensland, alphabetical by genus. Modified from: Batianoff, George N. and Butler, Don W. (2002). Assessment of Invasive naturalized plants in south-east Queensland. Appendix. Plant Protection Quarterly 17, 27-34. 11 pp.

Raulerson, L. 2006. Checklist of Plants of the Mariana Islands. University of Guam Herbarium Contribution 37:1-69. .

Smith, Albert C. 1991. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 5. 626 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate. 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity. 80 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar. 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 174 pp.

Sykes, Bill. 0. Bill Sykes, pers. com.

Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. 1994. The flora of Nauru. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Atoll Research Bulletin 392:1-223.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Weber, Ewald. 2003. Invasive plants of the World. CABI Publishing, CAB International, Wallingford, UK. 548 pp.

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 17 JAN 2011.