Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Impatiens balsamina
L., Balsaminaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 5 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: kamantigi

Chinese: feng xian hua

Chuukese: pee cca, pee-cha

English: balsam, garden balsam, impatiens, rose balsam, spotted snapweed, touch-me-not

French: balsamine des jardins, impatience

Hawaiian: ‘elepe

Korean: bongseonhwa

Palauan: hosengka

Samoan: patiale, patiale

Spanish: balsamina, chachupina, chico, madama, mírame lindo

Tongan: polosomo

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Herb, perennial or annual, to 60 cm high (24 in) with weak, succulent stems.  Leaves simple, alternate, blade narrowly elliptic to ovate or lanceolate, 6-15 cm long (2 1/2 - 6 in) with toothed margins and an attenuate base.   Flowers continuously through the year; flowers one to three, borne in sessile axillary clusters, each flower with a narrow, curved, nectar-filled spur 1.5-2.5 cm long (5/8-1 in).   Corolla two-lipped, with five unequal, free, white, pink, red, or purple, obcordate petals, the lower two the largest, 2.5-3.5 cm long (1 1 3/4 in).  Fruit a fuzzy ovoid capsule 1.5-2 cm long (5/8 - 3/4 in), opening explosively to eject the seeds."  (Whistler, 2000).

"Succulent, watery herbs; leaves serrate, petiole usually glandular at base; flowers showy, white, pink, red or purple; petals 3, the lateral ones bifid; capsules loculicidal"  (Stone, 1970; p. 398).

Habitat/ecology:  A common escape from cultivation, naturalizing in disturbed areas.  In Niue, "grows semi-adventively in several small waste places in most or all of the villages" (Sykes, 1970; p. 48). In Tonga, "frequent about dwellings and cemeteries. Occasional as an escape in waste areas" (Yuncker, 1959; pp. 176-177).

Propagation:  Seed  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 172).

Native range:  "Probably native to India, from where it was early dispersed throughout Southeast Asia and China.  It is now cultivated throughout the world as an ornamental"  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 172).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 150)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. (1989) (p. 50)
Voucher cited: Manner & Mallon 231 (GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 150)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 150)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 13)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 150)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 57)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 74)
Voucher cited: D.H. Lorence 9950 (PTBG)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 630)
Vouchers cited: Smith 7478, Smith 7479
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 630)
Vouchers cited: DA 16768, DA 12123, DA 12091
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 47)
Voucher cited: Moore 428
Persisting from cultivation.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 47)
Voucher cited: Grant 1300
Persisting from cultivation.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11194 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 398)
Voucher cited: Stone 4664 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 150)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1989) (voucher ID: BISH 572089)
Taxon name on voucher: Impatiens balsamina L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 403207)
Taxon name on voucher: Impatiens balsamina L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1955) (voucher ID: BISH 448994)
Taxon name on voucher: Impatiens balsamina L.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2006) (p. 6)
"Rare; one plant observed in private garden".
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 150)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 99)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 150)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 73)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 103)
Voucher cited: Thaman & Manner 117 (SUVA)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 20)
Voucher cited: Baumann 6794
Spontané
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 48)
Voucher cited: CHR 168870
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 79)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 43)
Impatiens sp.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 101)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 150)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 97)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 64)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1966) (voucher ID: BNM 194)
Taxon name on voucher: Impatiens balsamina L.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (pp. 518-519)
Fairly common in cultivation in different forms, sometimes occuring as an escape in waste places.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 83)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 176-177)
"Introduced ornamental. Frequent about dwellings and cemeteries. Occasional as an escape in waste areas".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 60)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 53)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 66)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
A common ornamental plant, widely cultivated in gardens and houses throughout China.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 203)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 190)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 350)
Casual adventive.
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 50)
Cultivated only
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 190)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 116)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
Stoddart, D. R./Taylor, J. D., eds. (1971) (p. 153)
"Recorded by Willis and Gardiner (1931)".
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 33)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 115)


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 12 JUL 2008.