Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Hedychium flavescens
N.Carey ex Roscoe, Zingiberaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

High risk, score: 11 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific))
Risk assessment of Hedychium flavescens from the Government of Queensland, Australia (PDF format)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: e mei jiang hua

English: cream garland-lily, cream ginger, wild ginger, yellow ginger, yellow ginger-lily

French: gingembre jaune, Gingembre-douleur, longose, longouze à fleurs jaunes, longoze

Hawaiian: ‘awapuhi melemele

Maori (Cook Islands): kaopui rengarenga, kōpī rengarenga, kōpī rengarenga, re‘a, re‘a rengarenga, re‘a rengarenga, re‘a rengarenga

Niuean: kamapui fiti tea, keuila

Pohnpeian: sinter

Samoan: teuila, teuila, teuila pa‘epa‘e, teuila pa‘epa‘e

Tahitian: opuhi rea rea

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Coarse perennial herbs with leafy shoots 1.5-2 m tall (rarely taller in Hawai'i), rhizomes ca. 3 cm in diameter, branched, internally pale and fragrant.  Leaves oblong to lanceolate, 20-45 (-60) cm long, 5-10 (-12.5) cm wide, upper surface glabrous, lower surface sparsely pubescent, apex acuminate, sessile, ligules membranous, (1-) 2-4 cm long, entire, pubescent, sheaths glabrous.  Flowers fragrant, inflorescences erect, basically ovoid, 15-20 cm long, ca. 8 cm wide, primary bracts green, membranous along margins, loosely imbricate, broadly ovate to elliptic, 5-8 cm long, ca. 3.5 cm wide, apex usually obtuse, pubescent to glabrate, rachis permanently concealed, cincinni usually 4-flowered, calyx cylindrical, 4-5 cm long, pubescent or rarely glabrate; corolla yellow, the tube slender, 8-9 cm long, the lobes linear to linear-lanceolate, 4-5 cm long; labellum often centrally flushed with dark yellow, broadly obovate, about as long as staminodes, (2.5-) 3-4 cm wide, the base tapered into a claw; stamen yellow, about as long as labellum or slightly longer; lateral staminodes white, spatulate to lanceolate, (2.5-) 4-6 cm long.  Capsules unknown"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1622).

Habitat/ecology:  Rainforest, moist forest, roadsides, open areas, streamsides. Similar to H. coronarium and H. gardnerianum.  "Forests and forest edges, riverbanks.  Forms dense thickets in forest openings and along creeks, impeding growth and regeneration of native plants"  (Weber, 2003; p. 193).

In Hawai‘i, "commonly cultivated and naturalized in moist areas"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1622). In New Zealand, "on roadsides and stream banks" (Healy & Edgar, 1980; p. 40).

Propagation:  "Rhizomes spread outwards slowly, and fragments are spread by dumped vegetation, fill, soil movement, flooding, and contaminated machinery. Commonly found in gardens, tips, and on roadsides"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).

Native range:  India and Nepal; naturalized elsewhere; widely cultivated in tropics & subtropics (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 35)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 485, 531, 554)
Voucher cited: Danton B(701)668. "En el pueblo de San Juan Bautista, se encuentra en via de naturalización a las orillas de los dos esteros que corren en ambos lados de la calle La Pólvora".
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 89)
"Potential invader"
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 63)
Vouchers cited: A. Dores 79 (NY, PTBG), B. Ekiek 85 (NY, PTBG), B. Ekiek 109 (NY, PTBG)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 617421)
Taxon name on voucher: Hedychium flavescens N.Carey ex Roscoe
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 617427)
Taxon name on voucher: Hedychium flavescens N.Carey ex Roscoe
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 8499 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 381)
Voucher cited: Moore 303
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 94)
"Potential invader".
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 381)
Voucher cited: Grant 5442
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6537 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 9190 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 113)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1622-1623)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1622-1623)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1622-1623)
Voucher cited: Munro 78, 79, 151 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1622-1623)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1622-1623)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1622-1623)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 142)
Voucher cited: MacKee 34887
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 271)
As H. flavum Roxb. Voucher cited: CHR 169974. "Possibly belongs to the species Hedychium flavescens Carey.
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 24)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 40)
As H. flavum Roxb. Voucher cited: Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9949 (BISH), Yuncker 10195 (BISH). See Sykes (1970).
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 66)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Forests; 500-800 m, Sichuan.
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Healy, A. J./Edgar, E. (1980) (p. 40)
Voucher cited: Kirk 1381 (WELT)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Owen, S. J. (1997)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. (1991) (pp. 51-61)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Très envahissant"
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Baret, Stephane/Rouget, Mathieu/Richardson, David M./Lavergne, Christophe/Egoh, Benis/Dupont, Joel/Strasberg, Dominique (2006) (p. 758)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Naturalisée

Comments:  A major invader of native forests in New Zealand and La Réunion.

Control: 

Physical: Dig out, pull seedlings and regrowth. Do not compost roots.

Chemical: Treat with herbicide. Escort 25 gm/100 l water + 0.1% Pulse; Roundup 2% +0.2% Pulse (Timmins and Mackenzie, 1995; pp. 123-125).

"1. Cut down and paint stump (all year round): cut above pink 'collar' at base and apply or glyphosate (250ml/L)or metsulferon-methyl 600g/kg (1g /L). Leave stems and leaves to Leave on site to rot down.
2. Dig or pull out small plants (all year round). Do not compost, leave on site to rot down or hang rhizomes in trees, as they survive indefinitely. Dry them out and burn them, or dispose of them at a refuse transfer station.
3. Spray dense patches away from roots of vulnerable species (all year round): metsulferon-methyl 600g/kg (5g/10L knapsack). Add penetrant in winter.  Don't replant sprayed sites for 6 months"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 7 MAY 2017.