Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Flacourtia jangomas
(Lour.) Raeuschel, Salicaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Flacourtia cataphracta Roxb. ex Willd.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: yun nan ci li mu

English: coffee plum, greater krekup, Indian cherry, Indian plum, rukam, runeala plum

French: prune malgache, prunier d'Inde

Maori (Cook Islands): venevene pāma

Niuean: palamu

Spanish: ciruela forastera

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Small, deciduous tree, 6-10 (-14) m; trunk and branches commonly thornless in old trees; ± densely beset with simple or branched, woody thorns when younger; bark light-brown to copper-red or pinkish-buff, flaky into thin lamels; young branches white-dotted by numerous suborbicular lenticels, puberulous or mostly glabrous.  Leaves ± narrow-ovate to ovate-oblong, rarely ovate-lanceolate, long-obtuse-acuminate, broadly cuneate to rounded at the base, membranous to thinly chartaceous (pinkish or light cinnamon-brown when young in a fresh state), glabrous, shining above, mostly dull beneath, subserrate-crenate, (5-) 7-10 (-11) by (2-) 3-4 (-5.5) cm; petiole puberulous or glabrescent, 6-8 mm.  Racemes axillary, subcorymbose, glabrous, few-flowered, the male 1.5-3, the female 1-1.5 cm long.  Flowers fragrant of honey, before or with the young foliage.  Pedicels very slender, 0.5-1 (-1.5) cm.  Sepals 4 (-5), ovate, obtuse, greenish, ± pubescent on both sides, 2 mm.  Disk fleshy, entire or slightly lobed, white or yellow (orange). Male flowers: filaments glabrous.  Female flowers: Ovary first flask-shaped, soon subglobular, with 4-6 styles connate into a distinct, 1 mm high column, not or slightly free at their apices, each bearing a ± dilatate, bilobed, recurved stigma.  Fruit subglobose, 1.5-2.5 cm in diameter, dull-brownish red or purple, then blackish, with greenish-yellow pulp, enclosing 4-5 (-10) flat seeds, tipped with the single, short style-column with 4-6 minute stigma-points" (van Steenis, 1954; pp. 72-73).

Habitat/ecology:  "Cultivated in lowland countries up to 600 m as a fruit tree" (van Steenis, 1954; pp. 72-73).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Possibly indigenous in the area of Assam and Burma (Smith, 1981; p. 639). "Not known in wild state, but possibly originated in India" (van Steenis, 1954; pp. 72-73).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1990) (voucher ID: PTBG 9114)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia jangomas
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 665721)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia jangomas (Lour.) Raeuschel
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 665722)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia jangomas (Lour.) Raeuschel
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 133)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fiji Islands introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 639)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1982) (voucher ID: PTBG 26437)
Taxon name on voucher: Flacourtia jangomas
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
cultivated
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2013) (p. Voucher specimen)
Voucher cited: Bryan s.n. (BISH 51985)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
cultivated
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2013) (p. Voucher specimens)
Vouchers cited: Maehler 2 (BISH 50499), Yamada s.n. (BISH 51984)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
cultivated
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2013) (p. Voucher specimens)
Voucher cited: MacDaniels 425 (BISH 51983)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 54)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 15308, MacKee 42773, MacKee 42987, Hofman in MacKee 44264
Spontané
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (pp. 96-98)
Erroneously as Xylosma samoense in Sykes (Smith, 1981). Vouchers cited: CHR 168845, CHR 170463, CHR 168846
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Mountain rain forests, evergreen broad-leaved forests; 700-800 m. W. Guangxi, S. Hainan, S. Yunnan.
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 43)
Naturalised
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Cultivé/naturalisé"
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Mauremootoo, J. (2004) (pp. 7, 8)

Comments:  Flacourtia jangomas (Lour.) Rauschel is reported by Cronk and Fuller (1995; p. 241) to be a problem species in the Cook Islands.

See also Flacourtia indica and Flacourtia rukam.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 19 APR 2011.