Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Elephantopus mollis
Kunth, Asteraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: halomtano, papago, papago, papago, papago baka, papago halen tano, papago halomtano, papago halumtanu, papago vaca, papago vaka

English: elephant's foot, elephantopus, false tobacco, soft elephantsfoot, tobacco weed

Fijian: tavako ni veikau

French: faux tabac

Hindi: jangli tambaku

Japanese: misumigusa, sirobana-ikakozorina

Mangarevan: avaava rapakau

Maori (Cook Islands): tapuae ‘erepani

Pohnpeian: tipaker en wei

Tahitian: ava‘ava teitei

Tongan: lata hina, lau veveli

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Stems 35-90 cm tall, dichotomously branched, patently strigose. Leaves scattered along stem, lower ones oblong-obovate, 10-22 x 3-7 cm, apex acute, base gradually dilated, margins serrate or subentire, strigose, lower surface densely soft puberulent, sparsely appressed-pubescent toward mucronate apex; upper leaves gradually smaller, elliptic or elliptic-oblong. Heads in clusters surrounded by cordate leafy bracts, bracts 3, acuminate, 8-15 x 7-12 mm, subentire, strigose. Involucre oblong, 6-8 x 3 mm, bracts strigose, outer 4 lanceolate-oblong, 4-5 mm long; inner 4 elliptic-oblong, 7-8 mm long. Florets 4 per head; corolla 5 mm long, lobes obtuse. Achenes 2.5-3 mm long; pappus bristles 5, stiff, dilated and hairy at base, 3.5-4 mm long"  (Digital Flora of Taiwan).

"Erect herb to about 1 m tall with pilose stems and alternate elliptic-oblong or obovate-elliptic leaves 5-15 cm long, 3-6 cm wide, crenate or serrate, acute, decurrent at base, petioles winged, very short and broad, upper surface of blade pilose-scaberulous; lower surface villous and resinous-gland-dotted; heads usually white, clustered; bracts below involucre deltoid-cordate, hirsute; bracts of involucre acuminate, strigose; corollas white, all tubular, 4 mm long, glabrous outside; achenes black, 3 mm long, puberulent; pappus 4 mm long, the 5 bristles with dilated base. The detachable hairs are irritating to a person's skin" (Stone, 1970; p. 592).

Habitat/ecology:  "Occurs as a major weed in pastures, an intermediate weed on roadsides and wasteland, and a minor weed in other disturbed places.  The plant requires full sun and thrives in a range of moisture conditions." (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 16)  Produces a thick ground cover that smothers other vegetation.

"Abundant on Guam chiefly in the southern part where it is an obnoxious weed of overgrazed savannah lands; usually mingled with Hyptis capitata ('botones')"  (Stone, 1970; p. 592).  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and sometimes common in relatively dry pastures, along roadsides, trails, and other disturbed areas in wet forest" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 310).  In Fiji, "abundantly naturalized in cultivated and waste lands, clearings, pastures, and plantations, along roads and trails, and on forest edges" (Smith, 1991; p. 260). In Papua New Guinea, "an aggressive and persistent weed of grazing land; often found in grazed coconut plantations." (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 70).  In Taiwan, "widespread at low elevations throughout the island"  (Digital Flora of Taiwan).

Propagation:  Achenes adhere to clothing and animals' fur. Also wind-dispersed.

Native range:  West Indies and tropical America, now a widespread tropical weed.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 287)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 42)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 31420 (US, BISH), Falanruw 2193 (US, BISH)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 64)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-59075
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 287)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 42)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 1898 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 287)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 42)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 1632 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Asuncion Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 287)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Asuncion Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 42)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 2264 (US, BISH)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 287)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 42)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 31359 (US, BISH), Anderson 572 (US,BISH, NY, L), Moore 384 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 287)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1966) (voucher ID: PTBG 45127)
Taxon name on voucher: Elephantopus mollis
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1946) (voucher ID: PTBG 45131)
Taxon name on voucher: Elephantopus mollis
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 287)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 287)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. Field notes.)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 80)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. Field notes.)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. Field notes.)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. Field notes.)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. Field notes.)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 287)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 97)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2442 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (pp. 72-73)
Vouchers cited: F.R. Fosberg 26407 (BISH), P. Gantt s.n., S.F. Glassman 2442 (BISH), E.Y. Hosaka 3515 (BISH), K.M. Nagata 1483 (BISH), S. Perlman 21400 (PTBG), T. Portner 5 (NY, PTBG), M. Takamatsu 732 (BISH), N.S. Tangalin 1227 (PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 38773)
Taxon name on voucher: Elephantopus mollis Kunth
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2005) (voucher ID: PTBG 43889)
Taxon name on voucher: Elephantopus mollis
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2007) (voucher ID: PTBG 49900)
Taxon name on voucher: Elephantopus mollis
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 287)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 260)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 260)
Vouchers cited: Smith 7677, DA 5687
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 260)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 260)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 1224, Krauss 454, Smith 4879, DA 10158, Greenwood 746, DA 10535, DA 10797, DA 9510, DA 10947, DA 454, DA 3943, DA 9358, DA 11094, DA 7667, Meebold 21934, Simmonds 73
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1932) (voucher ID: PTBG 45126)
Taxon name on voucher: Elephantopus mollis
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 25)
Voucher cited: St. John 14525 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 7365 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 8826)
Taxon name on voucher: Elephantopus mollis
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 4152 (PAP), B.G. Decker 306 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: S.P. Perlman , K.R. Wood , J.-P. Luce & B. Rollet 15944 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 26301)
Taxon name on voucher: Elephantopus mollis Kunth
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 42234)
Taxon name on voucher: Elephantopus mollis Kunth
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 12026 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 75)
Voucher cited: BRY 25747
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11699 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 68)
Vouchers cited: Raynal 17864, Fosberg 64826 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 75)
Voucher cited: B.H. Gagne 1622
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10275 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 75)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 61083
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
University of California (2006)
"Grows in disturbed and drier areas".
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2083 (PAP), J. Florence 5003 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mopelia (Mapetia, Maupiha‘a, Maupihoa, Mopiha‘a) Atoll introduced
invasive
Sachet, M.-H. (1983) (p. 35)
Voucher cited: Sachet 953 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 75)
Voucher cited: Moore 702
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 3436 (PAP), J. Florence 10432 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 17)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 75)
Vouchers cited: BRY 26003, BRY 26007a
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2900 (PAP), J. Florence 4619 (PAP), W.A. Whistler & M. Guérin 15 (PAP), P. Birnbaum 31 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1921) (voucher ID: PTBG 45128)
Taxon name on voucher: Elephantopus mollis
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 3064 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10165 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5683 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 5524 (PAP), J. Florence 6167 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 592)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 287)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 310)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 310)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, Randal T. (2002) (p. 4)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H109931 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 310)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 310)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
Wester, Lyndon (1992) (p. 128)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 310)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 379)
Rudérale, nombreuses localités
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 35)
Vouchers cited: Cribs 602, Franc 209, Däniker 121, Bergeret 4, Däniker 1731, Bourret 1074 (NOU), MacKee 36646
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 35)
Voucher cited: MacKee 23510
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 101)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago invasive
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 555)
Common on the Gazelle Peninsula in tracts of pumice soil. It has spread to New Ireland and is found sporadically in coconut plantations.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
New Ireland Island invasive
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 555)
Found sporadically in coconut plantations.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 70)
Rather localized.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 61)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 139)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 595)
In open waste places and grasslands, from sea level to an altitude of 2,000 m.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 91)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 71)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘apai Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: Soakai 530
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 265-266)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15770
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 72)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 60)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: Soakai 480
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 52)
Voucher: Flynn 6824 (PTBG, US, NY)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 8)
Vouchers cited: Soakai 242, Veikune 118
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 247)
Taxon name on voucher: Elephantopus mollis
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 91)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. (1985)
Morat & Veillon, 1985, cited in Meyer, 2007
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 10)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 38)
As Elephantopus scaber L. Weed of uncertain origin
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Ching-I Peng, ed. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 139)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Envahissant principalement dans les milieux perturbés.
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Envahissant principalement dans les milieux perturbés.

Comments:  On State of Hawai‘i noxious weed list. Mainly an agricultural weed in Micronesia. A declared noxious weed in Fiji (Smith, 1991; p. 260).

Reported present in Niue by Waterhouse (1997) but not seen in survey conducted by Space & Flynn (2000).

Control: 

Physical: "Controlled by chipping and cultivation before flowering.  Competitive with pasture species because of rosette habit of young plants and unpalatability to stock.  Slashing only temporarily prevents flowering, and may prolong the life of rosettes" (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 25).

Chemical:  Probably susceptible to:  1) many residual herbicides at standard rates; 2) translocated herbicides, including glyphosate (may be wick-wiped onto flowering shoots), and 2,4-D at standard rates when young; 3) contact herbicides, including paraquat, but only as seedlings" (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 25).

Biological:  "There has been limited work on the biological control of E. scaber, involving a seed-infesting tephritid fly Tetraeuaresta obscuriventris from Trinidad.  There is no evidence that the fly has had a significant effect on the abundance of the weed"  (Waterhouse and Norris, 1987; pp. 277-280).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 7 DEC 2010.