Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Hyptis capitata
Jacq., Lamiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 17 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: batunes, botones

English: false ironwort, knobweed

Japanese: iganigakusa

Palauan: erur

Pohnpeian: pawehs pwetepwet

Spanish: biojo, cartagena amarilla, chirrite, cordón de fraile

Tahitian: maa uupo

Yapese: pathpath, t‘aiegarabao

Habit:  herb

Description:  "An erect subshrub 1/2-2 m tall, with ovate-oblong, acute, serrate, petiolate leaves, commonly 5-15 cm long and 2-6 cm wide; petiole to about 2-3 cm; blades glabrate or puberulent and dorsally glandular; peduncles axillary, commonly 2-9 cm long; heads subglobose, 1.5-2.5 cm in diameter; flowers sessile, white, subtended by oblong-obovate bracts up to 8-12 mm long; calyx-lobes subulate, nearly equal, calyx-tube glabrous at extreme base, hirsute medially, pubescent distally, 3-4 mm long in flower, enlarging to nearly 1 cm in fruit; corolla 5-6 mm long, white with faint purplish spots on upper lip; filaments pubescent basally; nutlets brownish-black with a narrow white hilum, about 1 mm long" (Stone, 1970; p. 511).

Habitat/ecology:  Humid tropics. Common on savanna lands in Guam (Stone, 1970; p. 511). In Australia, "roadsides, disturbed or overgrazed areas, watercourses, pastures and open forests where soil is well drained" (Smith, 2002; p. 61).

Propagation:  "Seed in flower heads spread by water.  Seeds also dispersed by animals, humans, vehicles (including slashers and machinery), and when attached to fur, clothing and mud." (Smith, 2002; p. 61).

"It seeds prolifically each year which ensures survival.  The seeds, however, are light-sensitive and germination requires exposure to light.  On the other hand, exposure to far-red radiation, which is predominant where sunlight is filtered through a canopy of leaves, hinders germination.  Thus, since knobweed is often found along margins and tracks of rainforests, there will be a large quantity of ungerminated seeds present which provides a nucleus of infestation when these areas are cleared..."  (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992; pp. 488-490).

Native range:  Southern Mexico to Peru; exact native range obscure; widely naturalized in tropics (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 240)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane (2000) (p. 6)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 655722)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata Jacq.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 655723)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata Jacq.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 240)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 104)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2424 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (pp. 100-101)
Vouchers cited: E. Albert 19 (NY, PTBG), E. Albert 91 (NY, PTBG), T.W. Flynn 6081 (NY, PTBG), F.R. Fosberg 58533 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2415 (BISH), T. Hosokawa 6097 (BISH), D.H. Lorence 9492 (BISH, COM, NY, PTBG, US), S. perlman 21391 (PTBG), L. Raulerson LR19630 (PTBG), L. Stemmerman 2914 (BISH), M. Takamatsu 830 (BISH), C.Y.C. Wong 50 (BISH)
Invasive
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 150565)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata Jacq.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 150567)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata Jacq.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 433623)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata Jacq.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 438044)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata Jacq.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 447080)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata Jacq.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1990) (voucher ID: PTBG 23350)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 24537)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata Jacq.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 41824)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2006) (voucher ID: PTBG 44895)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 46336)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 240)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 150566)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata Jacq.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 42406)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39563)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 128)
Voucher cited: BRY 24825
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 3845 (PAP), W.A. Whistler & M. Guérin 16 (PAP), J.-M. Veillon & M. Guérin 66 (PAP), F.R. Fosberg 65009 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 491114)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata Jacq.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 493117)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata Jacq.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 607033)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata Jacq.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 511)
Voucher cited: Stone 3855 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 240)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 78088)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata Jacq.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 81622)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata Jacq.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 81624)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata Jacq.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 150604)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata Jacq.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1957) (voucher ID: BISH 150610)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata Jacq.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1945) (voucher ID: BISH 150611)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata Jacq.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 150625)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata Jacq.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1964) (voucher ID: BISH 401456)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata Jacq.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 507569)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata Jacq.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 572825)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata Jacq.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 649439)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata Jacq.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 1000196)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata Jacq.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R. (1995) (p. 21)
Voucher cited: K. Nagata 3788 (BISH)
New Guinea (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea)
New Guinea Island
New Guinea Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 189)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 16, 85)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 19)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1996) (voucher ID: BISH 651371)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata Jacq.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (2005) (voucher ID: BNM 394)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata Jacq.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2005) (voucher ID: PTBG 46278)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata Jacq.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 240)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 16, 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 19)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1967) (voucher ID: BNM 402)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata Jacq.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1967) (voucher ID: BNM 401)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata Jacq.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 240)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 16, 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 19)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 81623)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata Jacq.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 16, 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1970) (voucher ID: BNM 400)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata Jacq.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 488)
Scattered; prefers wet soil.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (pp. 416-417)
A weed in the settled areas, occurring in open waste places, fallow rice paddies, etc.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 70)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 20)
Voucher cited: Whistler 3933
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 67)
Voucher: Flynn 6938 (PTBG, US, SAMOA), Flynn 6943 (PTBG, US)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 309)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 319)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis capitata
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Gizo Island introduced
invasive
Orapa, Warea (2005)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island introduced
invasive
Orapa, Warea (2005)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 61)
One population at Kakadu.
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 61)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 50)
Naturalised
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 116)

Comments:  This species and other Hyptis species are common on Guam, but not present on many other islands in Micronesia or the Pacific. Since these Hyptis species are well-known weeds, they should be excluded where not already present.

Very prevalent in Samoa (Space & Flynn, 2002).

Control: 

Physical: "Single plants or small groups forming an incipient infestation should be grubbed before flowering and burnt, taking care to cut the root well below the crown to prevent re-establishment from the perennial rootstock"  (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992; pp. 488-490).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 12 MAY 2013.