Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Echinochloa esculenta
(A. Braun) H. Scholz, Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 8 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Echinochloa crus-galli subsp. utilis (Ohwi & Yabuno) T. Koyama; Echinochloa utilis Ohwi & Yabuno; Panicum esculentum A. Braun

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: zi sui bai

English: Japanese barnyard millet, Japanese millet, white millet

French: millet Japanais

Japanese: hie

Spanish: mijo japonés

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Robust, erect, light green annuals. Leaf-sheath light green to pale creamy brown, chartaceous, glabrous, rather loosely enfolding culm, slightly keeled above, finely striate. Ligule 0; ligular area glabrous. Leaf-blade (13)-17-30 cm x 10-16 mm, chartaceous, flat, linear, smooth, or adaxially rarely slightly scabrid on primary lateral ribs, midrib whitish, very distinct; margins whitish, slightly thickened, finely scabrid, tapering to subacute tip. Culm (35)-40-60 cm, stout, internodes glabrous. Panicle 6.5-12 cm, erect, very dense, usually with numerous close-set, sessile, often subverticillate racemes; rachis angular, ridged, scabrid, with a dense ring of bristle-like hairs at base and at nodes. Racemes 1.5-3-(4) cm, of many small dense clusters of spikelets; pedicels finely scabrid, < 1 mm. Spikelets 3-4 mm, purplish, sometimes whitish green, broadly ovate to subglobose, subacute. Glumes quite unequal, firmly membranous, 5-nerved, nerves scabrid, internerves usually finely scabrid-pubescent; lower 1-1.5 mm, enwrapping base of spikelet, upper 2.5-3.5 mm, ≈ spikelet, reflexed at maturity exposing upper part of ripening ☿ floret. Lower floret: lemma similar to upper glume,. 3 mm, 7-nerved, rotund-ovate, shortly acuminate or shortly cuspidate, nerves scabrid to hispid, internerves minutely scabrid-pubescent; palea < lemma, hyaline, keels minutely scabrid near apex. Upper floret: lemma. 3 mm, broadly elliptic to rotundate, very convex, crustaceous, obscurely 5-nerved, glabrous, shining, with a minute herbaceous cusp; palea. 2.5 mm; anthers 0.8-1 mm, yellowish brown to blackish; caryopsis. 1.5 x 1.5 mm, orbicular, very turgid, yellowish or brownish"  (Edgar & Connor, 2000; p. 548).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  In New Zealand and the Kermadec Islands, "Stony waste land, coastal sands, roadsides (mostly from seed spillages), crops"  (Edgar & Connor, 2000; p. 548).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Eastern Asia and Japan (Edgar & Connor, 2000; p. 548).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Herbst, Derral R./Clayton, W. D. (1998) (p. 24)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Hosaka 1799 (BISH)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 548)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) probably native
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) probably native
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 548)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 548)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 26 FEB 2008 and was last updated on 30 NOV 2008.