Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Echinochloa colona
(L.) Link, Poaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 9 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Panicum colonum L.

Common name(s): [more details]

Bontoc: tumi

Chamorro: chaguan-agaga

Chinese: guang tou bai

English: awnless barnyard grass, barnyard millet, birds rice, corn panic grass, Deccan grass, jungle rice, jungle ricegrass, little baryard grass, millet-rice, pigeon millet, shama millet, short millet, swampgrass, wild millet

French: blé du Dekkan, herbe de Greslan, herbe de riz, herbe sifflette, pied de coq méridional

Iloko: dukayang

Japanese: ko hime bie, wase bie

Other: riz de jungle

Palauan: uaum

Samoan: sefa, sefa

Spanish: armilán, arrocillo, camalote, champa, grama de verano, grama pintada, hualcacho, liendre de puerco, paja de apto, pasto colorado, pasto del arroz, pata de conejo, zacate de agua, zacate pinto, zancaraña

Tagalog: pulang puit

Tongan: matala‘ulie, muhuku‘apopoa

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Tufted annual up to 60 cm tall; culms prostrate to subascending, branched, glabrous, nodose; sheaths smooth; ligule obsolete; blades 4-20 cm long, 3-8 mm wide; inflorescence slender, 5-10 (-15) cm long, of 4-several racemes, these 1-2 cm long, spreading, or somewhat steeply ascending, subdistant; rachis finely scabrid; spikelets crowded, in 4 rows, subelliptic, 2.5-3 mm long, greenish or purplish; pericels very short, finely scabrid; first glume hispidulous, ovate, acute 1.2-1.5 mm long 3-nerved; second glume 2.5-3 mm long, 7-nerved; sterile lemma similar to second glume, with a palea; fertile lemma 2 mm long, ovate, glossy; caryopsis 1.7-2 mm long, whitish"  (Stone, 1970; p. 212).

Illustration by International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) courtesy Ecoport.

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "A common weed of ditches and moist ground in warmer regions of the world" (Wiggins & Porter, 1971; p. 848).

On Guam, weedy in wet or swampy places, near marshes, around waterpipes, etc. (Stone, 1970; p. 212).  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in wet or seasonally wet, disturbed areas, 0-280 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1535).  In Fiji, "occurs from sea level to about 200 m in wet places such as rice fields, roadsides, river banks, shores of ponds, the inner edges of mangrove swamps, old clearings, etc." (Smith, 1979; p. 341).  In New Caledonia, "localement commun en stations humides dans le Sud de la Grande-Terre" (MacKee, 1994; p. 59). "Common in sunny disturbed places and croplands" (Whistler, 1988; p. 51).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Widespread throughout the tropics of Asia and Africa and apparently of early occurrence in tropical America" (Smith, 1979; p. 341). Origin obscure (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 50)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 35356)
Taxon name on voucher: Echinochloa colona (L.) Link
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Vouchers cited: Whistler 1348, Whistler 3323
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1991) (voucher ID: PTBG 9511)
Taxon name on voucher: Echinochloa colona
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 91)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Anon. (1988) (p. 1)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 113)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 553)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 40)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 40)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 40)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Pukapuka Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 345)
Taxon name on voucher: Echinochloa colona
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 40)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 40)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 62)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 24877)
Taxon name on voucher: Echinochloa colona
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 40)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (pp. 127-128)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2427 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (pp. 56-57)
Vouchers cited: B. Ekiek 115 (NY, PTBG), F.R. Fosberg 58502 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2427 (BISH), E.Y. Hosaka 3486 (BISH), N.L.H. Krauss 1887 (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 24535)
Taxon name on voucher: Echinochloa colona (L.) Link
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 24536)
Taxon name on voucher: Echinochloa colona (L.) Link
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 24625)
Taxon name on voucher: Echinochloa colona (L.) Link
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 40)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 40)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kambara Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 341)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kanathea Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 341)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 341)
Voucher cited: DA 9066
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Koro Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 341)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 341)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Matuku Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 341)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Mbatiki Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 341)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Moala Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 341)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Moturiki Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 341)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Nayau Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 341)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ngau Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 341)
Voucher cited: Smith 7968
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rambi Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 341)
Voucher cited: DA 5768
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 341)
Voucher cited: DA 8893
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 341)
Vouchers cited: DA 5022, Smith 6660, Smith 6633, DA 3128, DA 8847, Smith 334
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 341)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vatulele Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 341)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 341)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 31A, DA 8249, DA 8148, DA 7999, DA 8661, DA 7862, DA 8075, DA 8402, DA 426, DA 7534, DA 7765, DA 8460, DA 307, DA 7438
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Wailagi Lala (Wailangilala) Atoll introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 341)
Voucher cited: DA 3454
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 7)
Vouchers cited: St. John 14694, St. John 14710
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 7)
Voucher cited: St. John 14608
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 7)
Voucher cited: St. John 14811 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39482)
Taxon name on voucher: Echinochloa colona
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39822)
Taxon name on voucher: Echinochloa colona
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 4093 (PAP), J. Florence 6925 (PAP), B. Toutain 4218 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 8782)
Taxon name on voucher: Echinochloa colona
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: K.R. Wood 6436 (PAP), S.P. Perlman & E. Vogt 15893 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 335)
Voucher cited: Grant 4169
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 12)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 64790 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: F.R. Fosberg 64790 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 335)
Voucher cited: Florence 2211
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2211 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 335)
Voucher cited: Moore 121
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 3465 (PAP), P. Morat 6941 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 335)
Vouchers cited: Grant 4162, Grant 4169, BRY 26044
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J, Florence 10166 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5634 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J, Florence 6334 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J, Florence 6136 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 212)
Vouchers cited: Stone 3935 (GUAM), Stone 4079 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 40)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1535)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1535)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1535)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1535)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1535)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1535)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1535)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1535)
Voucher cited: Nuttall s. n. (BISH)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 84)
Voucher cited: Whistler 11181
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 43968)
Taxon name on voucher: Echinochloa colona
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 70)
Vouchers cited: Scully 150N (US?), Thaman & Manner 155 (SUVA)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 91)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 59)
Voucher cited: Brousmiche 674
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 51)
Voucher cited: Sykes 1250
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 40)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 101)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 40)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 97)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3136)
Taxon name on voucher: Echinochloa colonum (L.) Link
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1978) (voucher ID: BNM 10160)
Taxon name on voucher: Echinochloa colonum (L.) Link.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 40)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 97)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 59)
Voucher: Lorence 9714 (PTBG, BNM, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 7)
Taxon name on voucher: Echinochloa colona
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Aulupse‘el (Ulebsechel) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 40)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngeremdiu Island eradicated
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 7)
One specimen found, pulled and disposed of. Voucher: Lorence 9885 (PTBG, BNM, NY, US)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngeremdiu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 178)
Taxon name on voucher: Echinochloa colona (L.) Link
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Henty, E. E. (1969) (p. 81)
Throughout New Guinea to at least 6,000 ft., preferring wet, fertile soil.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 61)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 62)
At low and medium altitudes. In open, rather wet places.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 51)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Burcham, L. T. (1948) (p. 407)
Voucher cited: Burcham 71 (US)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 91)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 70)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘apai Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 99)
Voucher cited: Soakai 297
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 99)
Voucher cited: Soakai 984 (EI)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 61-62)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15468
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 99)
Vouchers cited: Lawrence 94, Lawrence 173, Ilolahia 53
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 61-62)
Vouchers cited: Hürlmann 110, Hürlmann 315, Yuncker 15156, Yuncker 15183
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuafo‘ou Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 51)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 99)
Voucher cited: Soakai 768
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 91)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 51)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) native
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales native
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
A weed of damp places and irrigated fields. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 333)
In farmlands and wet places.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 46)
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Brunei
Brunei (Negara Brunei Darussalam) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 46)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 37)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
A weed of damp places and irrigated fields.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island extirpated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 112)
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 20)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 46)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 26 JUL 2002 and was last updated on 19 APR 2013.