Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cupressus macrocarpa
Hartweg, Cupressaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 7 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

English: macrocarpa, Monterey cypress, Monterey-pine

Spanish: ciprés, ciprés Monterrey

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Medium-sized tree (sometimes very large in cultivation), pyramidal at first, with broad crown when mature.  Bark thick, reddish brown beneath, often becoming whitish on surface.  Adult foliage in dense, dark green masses, aromatic when bruised; branchlets systems not flattened.  1-3-year shoots terete, reddish brown, with leaves appressed except for the cuspidate, pungent, c. 1 mm long apex.  Leaves on ultimate twigs uniform, 1-2 mm long, broadly rhombic-ovate, tightly appressed, obtuse or subacute.  Male strobili 1.5-3 mm long, broad-oblong to subglobose.  Mature female cones very shortly stalked or sometimes subsessile, (1.5)-2-3.5 x (1.2)-1.5 x 3.2 cm, subglobose or broadly oblong-ellipsoid, shining brown; scales 8-14; umbo with small, obtuse, crescent-shaped process; seeds usually 10-20 per scale, of irregular shape, with small resinous tubercles"  (Webb et al., 1988; pp. 44-45).

Habitat/ecology:  "Monterey cypress thrives on limestone soils and in coastal situations exposed to salt spray.  Large trees are commonly seen on old upland homesteads in Hawaii, and it is widely planted in local forest reserves at 1,500-5,000 foot elevations"  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 64).  On Maui (Hawai‘i), "observed spreading in upland areas near forestry plantings into nearby gulches and pastures" (Starr, Starr & Loope, 2008; p. 44).  In New Zealand, "lowland, especially towards the coast and in northern areas.  Occasional and scattered cultivation escape in the vicinity of planted trees, mainly in open, waste ground"  (Webb et al., 1988; pp. 44-45). In Victoria [Australia], "small populations in limited distribution have invaded dry coastal vegetation, lowland grassland, grassy woodland and rock outcrop vegetation" (Carr et al., 1992, cited in Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 105).

Propagation:  Wind-dispersed, winged seed (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 105).

Native range:  USA (Monterey Peninsula, California), cultivated and naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (p. 46)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 457, 459, 553)
"El problema de los Cupressus en el Archipieligo es bastante complicado. Por una parte la sistematica del genero no es del todo bien conocida y por otra parte, los cipreses fueron introducidos hace tiempo en el Archipiélago, probablemente con el establecimiento de la colonia de Alfredo de Rodt en 1877. En su Plan de Manejo, la CONAF cita C. macrocarpa como la especie introducida en el Archipiélago. En los viveros forestales, ocurre que varias especies cercanas son cultivadas bajo el mismo nombre. Por lo tanto, no podemos decir que el verdadero C. macrocarpa no hubiera sido introducido cuando se realizó con especies exóticas el poblamiento de los alrededores del pueblo de San Jan Bautista en los años sesenta".
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. 44-45)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Starr & Starr 050818-01 (BISH)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 105)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (pp. 44-45)
"Occasional and scattered cultivation escape in the vicinity of planted trees, mainly in open, waste ground".
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  "A shallow-rooted tree, C. macrocarpa tends to blow over rather easily in high winds"  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 64).


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This page was created on 21 OCT 2004 and was last updated on 21 OCT 2010.