Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cordia alliodora
(Ruiz & Pavon) Oken, Boraginaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 7 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Cerdana alliodora Ruiz & Pav.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: cypre, Ecuador laurel, laurel, salmwood, Spanish elm

French: bois de Chypre, pardillo

Samoan: kotia

Spanish: ajo ajo, alatrique, canalete, capá, laurel, laurel blanco, laurel negro

Tongan: kōtia

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Trees to 25 m. high with trunks to 50 cm. in diameter, sometimes with small buttresses, the bark grayish to dark brown, the branchlets densely or finely stellate-pubescent; leaves on petioles 1-3 cm. long, the blades usually 7-15 cm. long but may attain 25 cm., oblong to elliptic, oblong lanceolate, or elliptic-obovate, acute or acuminate, usually attenuate to base, sometimes obtuse, entire, green and glabrate on upper surface, pale beneath and usually densely and minutely stellate-tomentulose; inflorescences paniculate, the panicles sometimes as much as 30 cm. broad, usually dense with numerous flowers, the flowers sessile, glomerate; calyx tubular, 4-7 mm. long, stellate-tomentulose, conspicuously 10-costate, every other rib prolonged into a short tooth; corolla marcescent, white, at least twice as long as the calyx, glabrous outside, the lobes oblong-spatulate, broadly rounded or truncate at the apex; stamens equaling or slightly exceeding the corolla, the filaments inserted in throat of tube, dilated and pubescent at base, just above point of insertion; ovary elongated, narrowly ovoid; style included or only shortly exserted, about as long as the ovary; mature fruits ellipsoidal, acute (crowned by the persistent style base), thin-walled and dry, containing one seed"  (Standley & Williams, 1970; 24(9/1-2), pp. 118-119).

"Tree to 12 m high (to 20 m where indigenous), cultivated at low elevation; petioles 1-3 cm long; leaf blades oblong or lanceolate to elliptic, 10-20 x 3-8 cm, stellate-pilose or glabrate on both surfaces; inflorescences loosely branched, 10-30 cm across; calyx cylindric, 4-6 mm long, densely stellate-tomentose, with 10 prominent ribs; corolla white, drying brown, marcescent, the lobes 5-7 mm long; fruit cylindric, about 5 mm long, enveloped by the persistent corolla and calyx tube." (Smith, 1991; p. 154).

Habitat/ecology:  Lowland to highland forests (0-1500 m) in its native habitat (Berry et al., 1997; p. 532).  In Guatemala (native), "usually in dry forests or thickets but sometimes in wet, mixed forest or along roadsides, sea level to 1,300 m"  (Standley & Williams, 1970; 24(9/1-2), pp. 118-119).

Propagation:  Wind-dispersed seeds.

Native range:  Mexico, Central America, West Indies, northern and western South America; also cultivated (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Observed in survey, no herbarium record.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (pp. 4, 8)
In species trial plot.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 154)
Voucher cited: DA 16426
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 34226)
Taxon name on voucher: Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pavon) Oken
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Lau, Alex/Frohlich, Danielle (2012) (pp. 10-11)
Voucher cited: OED 2009021001 (BISH)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 6)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 6)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 59)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 6)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 6)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 6)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Erromango Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lau, Alex/Frohlich, Danielle (2012) (pp. 10-11)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Maéwo Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lau, Alex/Frohlich, Danielle (2012) (pp. 10-11)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Malakula (Malekula) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 628720)
Taxon name on voucher: Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pavon) Oken
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Malakula (Malekula) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 1002380)
Taxon name on voucher: Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pavon) Oken
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 106)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Tolfts, Andrew (1997)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 179)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
Standley, Paul C./Williams, Louis O. (1970) (pp. 118-119)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Introduced as a forestry tree to Vanuatu, it is now invading adjacent land and shows every sign of becoming a serious problem (Tolfts, 1997).

Quite invasive in Tonga, particularly on the island of ‘Eua where it was introduced as a timber tree (Space & Flynn, 2001).

Introduced as a possible timber tree to Yap and possibly other islands in Micronesia (Space & Falanruw, 1999).

Being raised in the forestry watershed nursery in Vailima, Upolu, Samoa and naturalized specimens seen there as well as invading from forest plantings (Space & Flynn, 2002).

Control:  Difficult, as plants sprout readily. Grubbing or treatment with herbicides is probably necessary.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 16 MAR 2013.