Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Clerodendrum chinense
(Osbeck) Mabb., Lamiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 18 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Clerodendrum fragrans (Hort. ex Vent.) Willd.; Clerodendrum philippinum Schauer

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: chong ban xiu mo li

English: Chinese glory bower, fragrant clerodendrum, fragrant glory bower, glory bower, Hawaiian Rose, Honolulu rose, stickbush

Hawaiian: pīkake hohono, pīkake pilau, pīkake wauke

Maori (Cook Islands): pitate mama, tiare tūpāpaku

Pohnpeian: rohsen onoluhlu

Samoan: losa fiti, losa fiti, losa Honolulu, losa Honolulu

Tagalog: pelegrina

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Scented subshrubs up to 2 m tall; branches quadrangular, densely strigose.  Leaves membranous, broadly ovate, 6-29 cm long, 5-28 cm wide, both surfaces sparsely to moderately strigillose, margins coarsely and irregularly dentate, sometimes weakly 1-3-lobed, apex acute, base cordate to truncate, petioles 2-23 cm long.  Flowers fragrant, numerous in dense, terminal cymose inflorescences, often subtended by a pair of foliaceous bracts, bracteoles numerous, oblong or elliptic, 1.5-3 cm long, strigillose, especially along the margins; calyx purple or red, sometimes with white spots, campanulate, 10-15 mm long, 5-lobed, the lobes anceolate, apex acuminate; corolla pale pink, salverform, usually doubled by petaloid stamens; stamens and ovary usually modified into extra petals  Fruit unknown"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1319). "A perennial shrub, 1.2 -2.4 m tall, with attractive, dense terminal heads of white-pink-mauve flowers.  The flowers are fragrant and often sterile.  The leaves are large (6-10 cm long), opposite and simple with variable margins." (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 33)

Habitat/ecology:  "A major weed of roadsides and gardens in towns and villages and rapidly invades pastures and plantations wherever it is planted.  It only thrives where the soil and air are moist and fertile, but it can tolerate shade"  (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 15).  Can form dense thickets that exclude other species. "The plant appears best suited to high rainfall (greater than 1000 mm per annum), tropical and sub-tropical climates" (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 33).  "Forms dense canopies in pastures, along streams, and along forest edges, shading out the understory"  (Motooka et al., 2003).  "The plant thrives best where the soil is fertile and moist and where there is plenty of sunlight.  However, it can tolerate shade.  In particular, the rich, moist soils of geologically-recent volcanic islands favor it"  (Waterhouse, 1993; p. 79).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in open, wet, partly shaded, disturbed areas at the edges of mesic and wet forests, taro paddies, or streams, 50-670 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1319). In Fiji, "sparingly cultivated from near sea level to an elevation of about 900 m; it is more commonly seen naturalized in thickets, fields, and coconut plantations and along roadsides"  (Smith, 1991; pp. 212-213).

Propagation:  Primarily root suckers (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 33).

Native range:  China, exact native range obscure; widely cultivated in tropics & subtropics (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 4)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 4)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Voucher cited: Whistler 3068
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1975) (voucher ID: BISH 130097)
Taxon name on voucher: Clerodendrum philippinum
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (pp. 4, 13)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 49)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1990) (voucher ID: PTBG 9134)
Taxon name on voucher: Clerodendrum chinense (Osbeck) Mabb.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 4)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1961) (voucher ID: BISH 186985)
Taxon name on voucher: Clerodendrum philippinum
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 76)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 89)
"Potential invader"
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 10)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 186952)
Taxon name on voucher: Clerodendrum fragrans var. pleniflora
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. 26)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 18)
Invasive species.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 100)
Invasive
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 77)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 76)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 212-213)
Voucher cited: DA 10763
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1957) (voucher ID: BISH 33646)
Taxon name on voucher: Clerodendrum chinense (Osbeck) Mabb.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 212-213)
Vouchers cited: Smith 5017, DA 10126, DA 7428, DA 11071
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 187042)
Taxon name on voucher: Clerodendrum chinense (Osbeck) Mabb.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 77)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 151)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5008 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 292)
Vouchers cited: BRY 25366, BRY 26410
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 77)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: F.R. Fosberg & M.-H. Sachet 63396 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 492150)
Taxon name on voucher: Clerodendrum fragrans var. pleniflora
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 151)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 292)
Voucher cited: Setchell & Parks 13
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 77)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 77)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: S. Jourdan 592 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491741)
Taxon name on voucher: Clerodendrum fragrans var. pleniflora
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 643926)
Taxon name on voucher: Clerodendrum fragrans var. pleniflora
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1319, 1895)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1319, 1895)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1319, 1895)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1319, 1895)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1319, 1895)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1319, 1895)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (pp. 212-213)
Voucher cited: CHR 169882
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 39)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 5)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 49)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 8)
Some control work has been undertaken.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 77)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 60)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 75)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 6)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 28904)
Taxon name on voucher: Clerodendrum philippinum
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 417676)
Taxon name on voucher: Clerodendrum philippinum
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 439419)
Taxon name on voucher: Clerodendrum philippinum
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 439420)
Taxon name on voucher: Clerodendrum philippinum
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 106)
"Potential invader".
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
cultivated
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 73)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 75)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 229)
Ornamental.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 75)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) introduced
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 75)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
cultivated
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 75)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) introduced
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 75)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 75)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) introduced
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 75)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 75)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
cultivated
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 75)
Var. simplex only.
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
cultivated
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 75)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
cultivated
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 75)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
cultivated
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 75)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) introduced
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 75)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) introduced
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 75)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 75)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 75)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 27)
Cultivated only
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 75)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
cultivated
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 76)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
cultivated
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 76)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
cultivated
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 75)

Comments:  A major weed in Samoa (Upolu) (Space & Flynn, 2002) and American Samoa (Space & Flynn, 2000). Meyer (2000; p. 106) lists as present in Tonga, but not seen on islands visited (Space & Flynn, 2001). Becoming widespread on Niue (Space & Flynn, 2000; Space et al., 2004).

Control: 

Physical: "Slashing will slow spread but not prevent it.  Vertical barriers in the soil may prevent further spread if deep enough.  Deep cultivation in dry soil should be effective, but cultivation in moist soil is probably ineffective and may spread the weed.  Apparently unpalatable to stock" (Swarbrick, 1997; pp. 23-24).

Chemical:  "Probably susceptible to:  1) foliar application of arboricides such as picloram, metsulfuorn-methyl, glyphosate and triclopyr at standard rates and dilutions; 2) cut-stump application of the same herbicides; 3) soil application of hexazinone, karbutilate, fluroxypyr and bromacil at standard rates" (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 24). "A little work done suggests hormone-type herbicides in timely repeat applications will control this weed" (Motooka et al., 2003).

"No detailed screening of herbicides has been carried out, although 2,4,5-T, or the more expensive Tordon 520 Brushkiller, are suggested as possible herbicides for Western Samoa.  More recently a mixture of dicamba and 2,4-D has proved effective.  Work carried out in Western Samoa has also shown that metsulfuron methyl ester produces effective control.  It has been recommended that the plants be cut and the new growth sprayed.  When herbicides were applied in Western Samoa to regrowth four weeks after it had been slashed to the ground, glyphosate partially destroyed the foliage, but complete regrowth had occurred by 4 to 6 weeks after application.  Treatment with 2,4,5-T resulted in complete kill of foliage, but 5 to 15% of the plants had regrown after 8 weeks"  (Waterhouse, 1993, p. 80).

"Young plants can be sprayed by a herbicide such as triclopyr (Garlon 4).  Undiluted herbicide can be applied to the cut stems of larger plants with woody stems"  (Englberger, 2009; p. 8).

Biological: The chrysomelid beetle Phyllocharis undulata is a prospective biocontrol agent (see Julien (1992; p. 88) and Waterhouse (1993; pp. 73-93) for information on this and other possible agents).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 14 MAR 2013.