Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Cinnamomum verum
J.Presl, Lauraceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 10 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: xi lan rou gui

English: cinnamon, cinnamon tree

Fijian: kaloni

French: cannelier de Ceylan

Palauan: ochod ra ngebard, o‘oth

Samoan: tigāmoni, tigāmoni, tināmoni, tināmoni

Spanish: canela, canelero de Ceilán

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Evergreen small trees, up to 10 m tall. Bark black-brown, inner bark with cinnamic aldehyde flavor. Young branchlets gray, somewhat tetragonous, white-maculate. Buds sericeous-puberulent. Leaves usually opposite; petiole ca. 2 cm, glabrous; leaf blade greenish white abaxially, green and shiny adaxially, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 11-16 x  4.5-5.5 cm, leathery or subleathery, glabrous on both surfaces, triplinerved, midrib and lateral veins elevated on both surfaces, transverse veins and veinlets reticulate, conspicuously foveolate abaxially, base acute, margin entire, apex acuminate. Panicle axillary or terminal, 10-12 cm; peduncle and rachis sericeous-puberulent. Flowers yellow, ca. 6 mm. Perianth tube obconical; perianth lobes 6, oblong, subequal, gray puberulent outside. Fertile stamens 9; filaments hairy near base, those of 3rd whorl each with 2 glands, others glandless; anthers 4-celled; cells of 1st and 2nd whorls introrse but those of 3rd whorl extrorse. Ovary ovoid, 10-15 mm, glabrous; style short; stigma discoid. Fruit ovoid, 10-15 mm, black when mature; perianth cup in fruit cupuliform, dilated, dentate, teeth truncate or acute at apex"  (Flora of China online).

"Trees; young branches dark brown, terete, glabrous.  Leaves opposite or subopposite, coriaceous, ovate to broadly ovate, 10-15 cm long, 4-8 cm wide, tripliveined, glabrous, apex blunt or slightly acute, petioles stout, ca. 1 cm long.  Flowers gray pubescent, in axillary, sparsely strigose inflorescences as long as or longer than leaves; tepals 6, equal, erect; fertile stamens 9.  Fruit an ellipsoid berry, ca. 1 cm long, subtended by a cupule with persistent tepals attached to the rim"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 846).

Habitat/ecology:  "Rock outcrops, forests and forest gaps.  The dense canopy shades out all other plants, creating species poor stands that may cover large areas.  Once established, it becomes the dominant tree and eliminates the native forest"  (Weber, 2003; p. 108).

Invading moist secondary forest on Tutuila, American Samoa.  In Fiji, "native, cultivated or perhaps infrequently naturalizing near sea level or river level"  (Smith, 1981; p. 123).  In Hawai‘i, "cultivated and naturalized" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 846).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Sri Lanka; cultivated and naturalized (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (pp. 4, 11)
Voucher: Flynn 6546 (PTBG)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 430423)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum verum J.Presl
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1999) (voucher ID: PTBG 294)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum verum
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 10)
Voucher: Flynn 7053 (PTBG)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 375)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum zeylanicum J.Presl
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 89)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 10)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 151354)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum verum J.Presl
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 151355)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum verum J.Presl
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 80)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
"Potential invader"
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 103)
Vouchers cited: T.W. Flynn 6106 (MO, PTBG), F.R. Fosberg 60444 (BISH), D.H. Lorence 7918 (PTBG, US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 21144)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum verum J. Presl
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1980) (voucher ID: PTBG 22131)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum verum
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 24545)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum verum L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 123)
Vouchers cited: DA 13494, DA 13580, DA 16966
Perhaps infrequently naturalizing.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1963) (voucher ID: BISH 32743)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum verum J.Presl
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1963) (voucher ID: BISH 32746)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum verum J.Presl
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 32747)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum verum J.Presl
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 151341)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum verum J.Presl
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 123)
Vouchers cited: Vetawa 31, DA 7016, DA 7178, DA 12259, DA 16095
Perhaps infrequently naturalizing.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 14349)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum verum J.Presl
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1952) (voucher ID: BISH 14350)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum verum J.Presl
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1960) (voucher ID: BISH 14351)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum verum J.Presl
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 32744)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum verum J.Presl
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1963) (voucher ID: BISH 32745)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum verum J.Presl
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (p. 146)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10645 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 643072)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum verum J.Presl
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 132)
Voucher cited: Florence 9268
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (p. 146)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2580 (PAP), J. Florence 4011 (PAP), J. Florence 9268 (PAP)
Naturalisée. Rare à Tahiti.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 493057)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum verum J.Presl
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2000) (p. 12)
Voucher cited: C. Imada & A. Allison 99-47 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 846)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 846)
Voucher cited: Zschokke s. n. (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 846)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 71)
Vouchers cited: Vieillard s.n., Létocart in MacKee 39603, MacKee 45673
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 151366)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum verum J.Presl
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 151363)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum verum J.Presl
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group) introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 80)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group)   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 151365)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum verum J.Presl
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Chelbacheb Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 611175)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum verum J.Presl
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Urukthapel (Ngeruktabel) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Urukthapel (Ngeruktabel) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 151364)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum verum J.Presl
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 188)
Occasionally cultivated in gardens.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 6)
Voucher: Flynn 6953 (PTBG, US, SAMOA)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 151349)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum zeylanicum J.Presl
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1931) (voucher ID: BISH 151350)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum zeylanicum J.Presl
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 268)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum verum
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 6)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 28532)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum zeylanicum J.Presl
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 28612)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum zeylanicum J.Presl
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 417724)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum zeylanicum J.Presl
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1974) (voucher ID: BISH 417843)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum zeylanicum J.Presl
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 439244)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum zeylanicum J.Presl
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 43069)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinnamomum verum
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 26)
Cultivated only
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Mohéli (Mwali) Island introduced
invasive
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Mauremootoo, J. (2004) (pp. 7, 8)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Vos, P. (2004) (p. 6)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 53)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2667
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
invasive
Weber, Ewald (2003) (p. 108)

Comments:  Actively invading secondary forest in Samoa (Space & Flynn, 2002) and on Tutuila, American Samoa (Space & Flynn, 2000).

Locally naturalized on Rarotonga and Miti‘aro, Cook Islands (Space & Flynn, 2002).

Control:  See control methods for Cinnamomum camphora.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 11 MAR 2013.