Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cestrum nocturnum
L., Solanaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 17 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: dama de noche, dama di noche

Chinese: ye xiang shu

English: lady of the night, night cestrum, night queen, night-blooming jasmine, night-flowering cestrum, night-flowering jasmine, night-jessamine, queen of the night

Fijian: kara, thauthau, thauthau ni mbongi

French: jasmin de nuit

Hawaiian: ‘ala aumoe, kūpaoa, onaona Iāpana

Japanese: yakokwa

Maori (Cook Islands): ariki-va‘ine, ariki-va‘ine, tiare ariki va‘ine

Marshallese: joñoul ruo awa

Niuean: ike he po

Rotuman: ai pua e pogi

Samoan: ali‘i o le pō, ali‘i o le pō, teine o le pō, teine o le pō

Spanish: galán de noche

Tongan: laukau po‘uli

Tuvaluan: fafine o te po

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "A glabrous shrub with ovate-oblong petiolate obtuse leaves mostly 10-20 cm long; cymose racemes longer than petiole; flowers greenish-white or pale greenish-yellow; emitting a strong sweet fragrance at night; calyx green, 5-toothed, about 1/3 as long as the 2.0-2.5 cm corolla; corolla-lobes 5-6 mm long, obtuse, erect or spreading; 5 stamens included, puberulent at base, berry about 8-10 mm long, white, with 1-3 seeds"  (Stone, 1970; pp. 516-517).

Habitat/ecology:  Moist and wet forests and open areas. Forms dense, impenetrable thickets.  Widely planted for its nocturnal fragrance.  In Fiji, "cultivated in towns and villages and also abundantly naturalized in thickets and open forest"  (Smith, 1991; p. 36).  In Hawai‘i, "cultivated and naturalized"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1254-1255). In New Caledonia, "cultivé comme plante d'ornement, s'échappe des jardins sans devenir envahissant" (MacKee, 1994; p. 130).

Propagation:  White, bird-dispersed fruits.

Native range:  Cuba, Mexico and Central America; widely cultivated in the tropics (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 62)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9191 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1939) (voucher ID: BISH 181630)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum nocturnum L.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 33)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1960) (voucher ID: BISH 10244)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum nocturnum L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (pp. 6-7)
Voucher: Flynn 7018 (PTBG, BISH, US)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 351)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum nocturnum
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 88)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (pp. 6-7)
Voucher: Flynn 6977 (PTBG, NY, US)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 420150)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum nocturnum L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 331)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum nocturnum
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 244)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 99)
Voucher cited: Kanehira 1631 (NY)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (pp. 136-137)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 244)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 36)
Voucher cited: Smith 7507
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 181627)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum nocturnum L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 630145)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum nocturnum L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 36)
Voucher cited: Tothill 534
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 36)
Vouchers cited: Gibbs 686, Tothill 631, Gillespie 3980, Smith 5016, O. & I. Degener 32051, Smith 5802, Smith 9448, Gillespie 4381, DA 12109
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 34362)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum nocturnum L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 181622)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum nocturnum L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 181623)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum nocturnum L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 181624)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum nocturnum L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 181625)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum nocturnum L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 181626)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum nocturnum L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 271)
Vouchers cited: Moore 452, Florence 8823, BRY 26425, BRY 26507
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 8823 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1987) (voucher ID: BISH 560371)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum nocturnum L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 93)
"Wet habitats"
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 271)
Vouchers cited: Florence 8811, Florence 8258
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 3155 (PAP), J. Florence 5096 (PAP), J. Florence 8011 (PAP), J. Florence 8258 (PAP), P. Morat 6397 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 492363)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum nocturnum L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 493586)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum nocturnum L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1987) (voucher ID: BISH 547821)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum nocturnum L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 553697)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum nocturnum L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11125 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 643736)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum nocturnum L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 516-517)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 244)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 181608)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum nocturnum L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 181609)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum nocturnum L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 181610)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum nocturnum L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2003) (p. 32)
Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 010801-5 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1254-1255)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Oppenheimer, Hank (2010) (p. 38)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer & Perlman H50812 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, R. T. (2000) (p. 8)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H99905 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2007) (p. 31)
West Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer & Tangalin H70603 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1254-1255)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll cultivated
Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
Presence not verified; probably cultivated if present.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 244)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (pp. 18-19)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 27035 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 181607)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum nocturnum L.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 572828)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum nocturnum L.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 127)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 197)
Voucher cited: Thaman & Manner 15 (SUVA)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 130)
Vouchers cited: Baumann 16055 s.loc., MacKee 12164, MacKee 21755, MacKee 29613, Poncet in MacKee 44801
Spontané (garden escapes)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 193)
Vouchers cited: CHR 169990, CHR 170264
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 36)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 23)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 106)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9855 (BISH)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 40)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 430)
Widely cultivated for its flowers.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 49)
Voucher cited: Ross 13
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 6)
Voucher: Flynn 6931 (PTBG, US, SAMOA)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 28515)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum nocturnum L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 28832)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum nocturnum L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 417481)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum nocturnum L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 439416)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum nocturnum L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1979) (voucher ID: BISH 439471)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum nocturnum L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 326)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum nocturnum
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 36)
Voucher cited: Sykes 833
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 59)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-5)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Futuna Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 107)
"Potential invader". Secondary forest, lowland dense forest.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Futuna Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (pp. 11, 38)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 36)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 217)
Ornamental.
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 1222)
"Waste places, sheltered gullies, scrub".
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 25)
Cultivated only
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)

Comments:  Invasive on Tahiti and in Samoa.

Invasive and widespread on Rarotonga and Mangaia, Cook Islands (Space & Flynn, 2002).

Very prevalent on ‘Eua, Tonga, in disturbed areas (Space & Flynn, 2001).

Initially became widespread on Guam, but now more of a localized problem, possibly indicating local limiting factors (Margie Falanruw, pers. com.)

Control:  "Wear gloves when handling.

Physical:  Pull out small plants (all year round.), leave to Leave on site to rot down.

Chemical:  1. Cut down and paint stump (all year round): Tordon Brushkiller (100ml/L) or triclopyr 600 EC (100ml/L) or Yates Hydrocotyle Killer (500ml/L). 2. Spray (spring-summer): triclopyr 600 EC (30ml/10L) or Yates Hydrocotyle Killer (15ml/L)"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).

Katie Cassel (Kōke‘e Museum) reports good control with triclopyr ester at 20% in crop oil applied basal bark.  Probably sensitive to foliar applications of triclopyr"  (Motooka et al., 2003).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 10 MAR 2013.