Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Centella asiatica
(L.) Urb., Apiaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 7 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Hydrocotyle asiatica L.; Hydrocotyle erecta L. f.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ji xue cao

Chuukese: likotekoot, likotokot, mwoi, nikésúk, nikótókót

English: Asiatic pennywort, gotu kola, Indian pennywort, marsh pennywort, pennyweed, pennywort, sheep-rot, thankuni

Fijian: tatandra, tododro, totodro, totondro, totono

French: écuelle d'eau, fausse violette

Hawaiian: pohe kula

Hindi: brahmi

Japanese: tsubo-kusa

Maori (Cook Islands): kapukapu

Marshallese: maadko, madiko, madriko, margo, marigo, mariko, mariko, marukko, maruko, nargo

Niuean: tono, tonu

Palauan: elisichur, elsichur

Pohnpeian: liwadawad marer, luwut-uwut-marek, marer

Samoan: lau taliga, moa, moa, togo, togo, togo, togotogo, togotogo

Spanish: hierba de clavo, sombrerito

Tahitian: tohetupou

Tongan: tono, tono tahi

Wallisian: tona, tono, tono

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Creeping herb; petioles commonly 1-15 (or up to 30) cm long; blades orbicular-cordate or reniform, coarsely and shallowly toothed, 2-5 cm long and usually broader than long; inflorescence 1-7 cm long; secondary umbels of 2-4 flowers; petals pinkish-purple, 1 mm wide; stamens shorter; fruit 4-5 mm broad and 3 mm high, 7-9-ribbed"  (Stone, 1970; p. 462).

Habitat/ecology:  Occurs in a variety of open situations, both coastal and inland (Stone, 1970; p. 462).  "Occasional to common in pastures and sunny disturbed places" (Whistler, 1988; p. 38).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in a wide range of habitats including meadows, ditches, bogs and wet forest, 0-1,700 m" (Wagner et al, 1999; p. 201).  In Fiji, "found from near sea level to about 800 m in open places and on fern-covered ridges, and also along roadsides in shade, in cultivated land, and in pastures" (Smith, 1985; p. 655).  In Niue, an abundant adventive weed of plantations and waste places, and a great nuisance because it often forms dense creeping masses that affect crops adversely" (Sykes, 1970; p. 208). In Tonga, "a frequent plantation and waste-are weed" (Yuncker, 1959).  "In moist, protected places;...known in the Galápagos Islands from several islands at elevations of 350 to 800 m" (Wiggins & Porter, 1971).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Asia, now pantropical.  "Probably an aboriginal introduction to Western Polynesia" (Whistler, 1988; p. 38). Fosberg et al. (1979; p. 200) lists as native in Micronesia.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9504
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 56)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9504 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
abo. intro.
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 48)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 34775)
Taxon name on voucher: Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island introduced
abo. intro.
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 37099)
Taxon name on voucher: Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Vouchers cited: Harris 344, Yuncker 9113, Whistler 3313
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 56)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9113 (BISH), W. Harris 344 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1990) (voucher ID: PTBG 9123)
Taxon name on voucher: Centella asiatica
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Anon. (1988) (p. 1)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 61)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1993) (voucher ID: PTBG 27453)
Taxon name on voucher: Centella asiatica
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 18)
"Growing in grassy and swampy areas". Voucher cited: P.S. Green 2323 (K)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 7)
"Growing in grassy and swampy areas". Vouchers cited: P.S. Green 1362 (A, K), W.R. Sykes NI 1058 (CHR), W.R. Sykes NI 475 (CHR), J.D. McComish 49A (K)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) native
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 436)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island native
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 53)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 35)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 1920 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island native
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 60)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-58851
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 35)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 1688 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island native
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 60)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-58971
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island native
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 53)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 35)
Vouchr cited: Evans 2379 (US, BISH, Fo, NY)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Etal (Ettan) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Lukunor (Núkúnooch) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll   Marshall, Mae/Fosberg, F. R. (1975) (p. 43)
Voucher cited: Marshall 32 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Pis Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Pis Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1946) (voucher ID: PTBG 31009)
Taxon name on voucher: Centella asiatica
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll native
Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. (1989) (p. 55)
Voucher cited: Manner & Mallon 149 (GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Satawan Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 12)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island probably native
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 62)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 88)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2792 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 70)
Vouchers cited: M.J. Balick 4156 (NY, PTBG), M.J. Balick 4254 (NY, BISH, PTBG), J. Bee 23 (NY), A. Dores 225 (NY, PTBG), B. Ekiek 66 (NY, PTBG), E. Eperiam 11 (NY), R. Gallen 46 (NY), A. Raynor 112 (NY, PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 43503)
Taxon name on voucher: Centella asiatica
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2000) (voucher ID: PTBG 43535)
Taxon name on voucher: Centella asiatica
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 46092)
Taxon name on voucher: Centella asiatica
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Evans, M. (1969) (p. 11)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 46710 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1965) (voucher ID: PTBG 45080)
Taxon name on voucher: Centella asiatica
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Faraulep (Faraulap) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ifalik (Ifaluk) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Woleai Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 655-656)
Voucher cited: DA 2456
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 655-656)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 926
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Moala Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 655-656)
Voucher cited: Bryan 316f
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 655-656)
Voucher cited: US 73842
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 655-656)
Voucher cited: H.B.R. Parham s. n.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 655-656)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 1098
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 655-656)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 408, 1209; Gibbs 810; Weiner 5; Gillespie 4692.2; DA 10041; DA 714; DA 9580; DA 10850; DA 11257; Degener & Ordonez 13503; DA 3678; DA 6090
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 4184 (PAP), J. Florence 6886 (PAP), B. Toutain 4232 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 55)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 64791 (US)
Rare in lowland disturbed places.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 285)
Voucher cited: Florence 2124
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
University of California (2006)
"Disturbed areas, fields, wayside".
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2124 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 285)
Voucher cited: BRY 26669
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 285)
Vouchers cited: Whistler 4857, Grant 4523
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2732 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 38229)
Taxon name on voucher: Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5773 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6565 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5512 (PAP)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 462)
Probably indigenous. Voucher cited: Stone 3819 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 201)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 201)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 201)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 201)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 201)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 201)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands   Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ailinglaplap (Ailinglapalap) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ebon (Epoon) Atoll   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1962) (p. 30)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 26731 (US), Fosberg 39434 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (pp. 31-32)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 26490, Hughes s.n., Herbst 9029, Whistler 11266
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 17)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 26490 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Namu Atoll probably native
Fosberg, F. Raymond (1990) (p. 31)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ujae Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ujae Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 17)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 34298 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Ailuk (Aelok) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Ailuk (Aelok) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 17)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 33943 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll   Anderson, Donald (1951) (p. ii)
Voucher cited: Anderson 3636
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll probably introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 4)
"Abundant; widespread in most environments including lawns, ruderal areas, beaches and forests".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Aur Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Aur Atoll introduced
invasive
St. John, Harold (1951) (pp. 284-285)
Voucher cited: St. John 21375 (BISH)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 17)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 33830 (US), Fosbereg 27064 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 63)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mejit (Mãjej) Island probably native
Fosberg, F. Raymond (1990) (p. 31)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mili (Mile) Atoll introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2010) (p. A9)
Occasional; in fields and along pathway, beaches, most islands visited.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Utirik (Utrik, Utrõk) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Utirik (Utrik, Utrõk) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1959) (p. 6)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 36714 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll probably native
Fosberg, F. Raymond (1990) (p. 31)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll   Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2009) (p. 1)
Voucher cited: Vander Velde 0514200901
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 208)
Voucher cited: CHR 168678
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 38)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 25)
Modern or Polynesian introduction.
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 92)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9648 (BISH)
"Common in plantations and waste areas and considered especially obnixious because of the difficulty of eradication".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 40)
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Tobi Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Tobi Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 110)
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Tobi Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1992) (voucher ID: BNM 92)
Taxon name on voucher: Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Tobi Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 801)
Taxon name on voucher: Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Tobi Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 99999993)
Taxon name on voucher: Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 100)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. Field notes and voucher.)
Voucher: Lorence 9788 (PTBG, BNM, NY, TAMU, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 81)
Taxon name on voucher: Centella asiatica
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1983) (voucher ID: PTBG 23500)
Taxon name on voucher: Centella asiatica
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 96)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 200)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 96)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Merir Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 109)
?
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Pulo Ana Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 109)
?
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 109)
?
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 426)
Common, in lawns, on sandy foreshores and in coconut plantations on the strand-plain.
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 61)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 238)
In open damp grasslands, on rice-paddy banks, etc.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 38)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 56)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Kao Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 208)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15941
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 208)
"Found through Tonga".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 3)
Vouchers cited: Lister s.n., Soakai 1001 (EI)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 208)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15448
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 3)
Vouchers cited: Lister s.n., Ilolahia 150, Soakai 435
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 208)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 15010, Yuncker 15146
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 3910)
Taxon name on voucher: Centella asiatica
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Tafahi Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 208)
Voucher cited: Hülimann 539
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 208)
Cited: Barclay, Crosby.
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Tuvalu Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 30)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 38)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Shady, wet, grassy places, river margins; 200-1900 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hubei, Hunan, S Jiangsu, Jiangxi, S Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 205)
In shade and wet places, along ditches.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
North Korea
North Korea
North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 24)
Common
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Shady, wet, grassy places, river margins; 200-1900 m.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   Topp, J. M. W. (1988) (p. 8)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 25)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Rivers, Julie (2004) (p. 6)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Cousin Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 30)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 52107 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 45)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 21 OCT 2010.