Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cenchrus brownii
Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Cenchrus inflexus R. Br.; Cenchrus viridis Spreng.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Brown's burgrass, Brown's sandbur, fine-bristle bur grass, fine-bristle sandbur, green sandbur, sandbur, slim-bristle sandbur

Nauruan: eakung, iyakong

Samoan: mumuta

Satawalese: alū

Spanish: abrojo, cadillo bobo, cadillo carreton blanco, garretón blanco, guizazo, mozotillo

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Erect to straggling grass, 15-60 cm tall; culm bases sometimes decumbent and rooting at the nodes.  Leaves scattered along culms; lamina 5-35 cm long, 5-12 mm wide; sheath keeled, 6-12 cm long.  Inflorescence 3-12 cm long, with many densely crowded burrs.  Burrs 3.5-4 mm diam.; outer whorl of slender, barbed bristles to 7 mm long, surrounding a rigid cup with intercrossing spines of similar length.  Spikelets 2-4 per involucre, 4-5.5 cm long, acuminate, protruding among spines of the burr.  Lower glume ca 1/2 length of spikelet.  Upper glume and lower floret "equal, enclosing coriaceous fertile floret." (Du Puy, 1993; p. 499).

"Very similar to C. echinatus but with longer, narrower spikes consisting of more numerous, very crowded, smaller and more delicate burrs; leaf blades longer also.  Culms usually taller"  (Stone, 1970; pp. 207-208)."Annual [grass], mostly erect, 30-100 cm tall; blades thin, flat, lax, 6-12 mm wide; raceme 4 to 10 cm long, dense; burs depressed globose, about 4 mm high, the outer bristles numerous, very slender, the inner somewhat exceeding the body, the lobes interlocking at maturity; spikelets usually 3".  (Hitchcock, 1950; p. 731).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  Common in disturbed places, particularly near the ocean and on limestone soils.

Propagation:  Seed. The burrs detach easily from the spike and attach to clothing or animals.

Native range:  Tropical and semi-tropical Americas, naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 33)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 11)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 31587 (US, BISH, Fo)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 697520)
Taxon name on voucher: Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 33)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 11)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 31715 (US, BISH, Fo)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Guguan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 33)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 33)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 11)
Voucher cited: Anderson 601 (US, BISH, Fo, NY)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 33)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 697521)
Taxon name on voucher: Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 33)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 7)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 33)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 115255)
Taxon name on voucher: Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 33)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1935) (voucher ID: BISH 115269)
Taxon name on voucher: Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Lukunor (Núkúnooch) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 33)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Lukunor (Núkúnooch) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 112559)
Taxon name on voucher: Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Pis Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 33)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 33)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. Voucher specimen)
Voucher: BMW 5790 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 697519)
Taxon name on voucher: Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 24898)
Taxon name on voucher: Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 33)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 54)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ifalik (Ifaluk) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 33)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Satawal Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 33)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Satawal Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1969) (p. 3)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 46874 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 33)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Woleai Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 33)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 33)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1948) (voucher ID: BISH 115262)
Taxon name on voucher: Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 588360)
Taxon name on voucher: Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 3061 (PAP)
"Vu ce seul pied en ornemental".
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 207-208)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 33)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 115257)
Taxon name on voucher: Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1911) (voucher ID: BISH 115265)
Taxon name on voucher: Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 33)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
invasive
St. John, Harold (1960) (p. 321)
Vouchers cited: Taylor 46-1259, St. John 23845, St. John 23711
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 115266)
Taxon name on voucher: Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 115267)
Taxon name on voucher: Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 115268)
Taxon name on voucher: Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 79)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 34140. Not seen in this survey and may no longer be present.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1952) (voucher ID: BISH 115261)
Taxon name on voucher: Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2009) (p. 1)
Voucher cited: Vander Velde 0830200901
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2009) (voucher ID: PTBG 49754)
Taxon name on voucher: Cenchrus brownii
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 67)
Voucher cited: Thaman & Manner 35 (SUVA)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 33)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 33)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 79)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group) introduced
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 15)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 33)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 39586)
Taxon name on voucher: Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Henty, E. E. (1969) (p. 46)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (pp. 74-75)
A widely distributed weed in settled areas, occurring generally in open waste places in and about towns.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 27)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 56)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1959) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 34929 (US)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1969) (p. 4)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 43522 (US)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 2)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 34929 (US)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 27)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 73)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 27)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 24)
Naturalised
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 108)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Alabama, Georgia
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Mostly an agricultural pest, but also occurs on beaches and ocean-side habitats. See also C. echinatus.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 9 MAR 2013.