Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cedrela odorata
L., Meliaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate further, score: 2 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Cedrela glaziovii C. DC.; Cedrela mexicana M. Roem.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: nan mei xiang chun, yang chun

English: Barbados cedar, cedrela, cigar box cedar, Mexican cedar, Spanish cedar, West Indian cedar

French: cèdre acajou, cèdre des barbares

Spanish: cedrela, cedro colorado, cedro real

Tongan: sita hina

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Tree up to 20 m high; leaves up to 80 cm long, with (5-) 6-7 (-14) pairs of leaflets; leaflets ovate to lanceolate, acute to rounded at base, acute, acuminate or obtuse at tip, 8-20 cm long, 2.5-5.5 (-8) cm broad, generally glabrous; flowers with a heavy malty odor, 6-9 mm long; petals greenish-cream in bud, opening white; fruit 2.5-4.5 cm long, septicidally 5-valved; seeds flat, chestnut-brown, about 25 mm long and 6-7 mm broad"  (Adams, 1972; p. 394).

Habitat/ecology:  "Forests and forest edges.  In the native range, this tree occurs in semi-deciduous to evergreen lowland and montane tropical forests.  It grows rapidly and is a highly variable species in the native range.  It is intolerant of shade and does not coppice or sucker from roots.  High seedling densities are common.  The tree shades out native plants with its large leaves, displacing them and building up species-poor monospecific stands.  Native shrubs and trees are unable to establish in these stands"  (Weber, 2003; p. 91).

Roadsides, pastures and disturbed areas to 3360 (-4000) feet elevation in Jamaica (Adams, 1972; p. 394).  Moist uplands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; p. 65). In Fiji, "infrequently cultivated near sea level"  (Smith, 1985; pp. 571-572). In New Caledonia, "cette espèce est représentée par de beaux arbres plantés à Yahoué. En cette localité et à Tonghoué non loin de là des pieds spontanés assez nombreux et déjà grands se sont établis dans des fourrés secondaires, et parfois aussi dans des forêts naturelles peu dégradées" (MacKee, 1994; p. 101). "The plant appears well suited to coastal, tropical and sub-tropical areas of Australia, including the monsoon zone"  (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998).

Propagation:  Wind-dispersed seeds (Weber, 2003; p. 91).

Native range:  West Indies, Central and South America; cultivated and naturalized (GRIN). Widely planted as a timber species.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 33)
Not common.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 79)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island cultivated
Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 664588)
Taxon name on voucher: Cedrela odorata L.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
"Potential invader"
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (pp. 4, 8)
In species trial plot.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 571)
Voucher cited: Smith 8249
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 160041)
Taxon name on voucher: Cedrela odorata L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 571)
Voucher cited: DA 16415
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 160040)
Taxon name on voucher: Cedrela odorata L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 40)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2006) (p. 37)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2006) (p. 37)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2006) (p. 37)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Starr & Starr 030807-1 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2006) (p. 37)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2006) (p. 37)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 100)
"Potential invader".
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 100-101)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 34693, MacKee 34736
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 575408)
Taxon name on voucher: Cedrela odorata L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 9)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 427970)
Taxon name on voucher: Cedrela odorata L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 56)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 59)
Plantations.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 51)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (pp. 30-31)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated. Guangdong.
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
South Africa
South Africa
South Africa (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (pp. 30-31)

Comments:  Introduced as a possible timber tree to Yap and possibly other islands in Micronesia. Introduced as a timber tree to Samoa and Tonga—should be monitored for possible spread.

An invasive species in South Africa.

Control: 

Physical:  "Seedlings and saplings may be hand pulled or dug out.  larger trees can be killed by cutting at ground level"  (Weber, 2003; p. 91).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 9 MAR 2013.