Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Caesalpinia pulcherrima
(L.) Sw., Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Low risk (based on second screen), score: 5 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Poinciana pulcherrima L.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: caballero, kabayeros

Chinese: jin feng hua

Chuukese: niikaéeé, simmata, simota, warepik

English: Barbados flower-fence, Barbados-pride, dwarf poinciana, flower-fence, paradise-flower, peacock flower, pride of Barbados

French: orgueil de Chine, petit flamboyant

Kosraean: rapotin, repawtin

Maori (Cook Islands): ‘ōva‘i, ‘ōvai, pī tiare

Marshallese: emenawa, jeimata, jeimota, jeimõta, jemata

Mokilese: shimatada

Niuean: fisihetau, fitihetau

Pingelapan: seh muatah

Pohnpeian: sehmwida, sem tah, semutha

Samoan: lau pā, lau pa, lau pā

Satawalese: waripik

Tongan: ‘ohai, piu

Ulithian: warapig

Habit:  shrub/tree

Description:  "Shrubs or small trees. Branches green or farinose-green, smooth, with scattered, sparse prickles. Leaves 12-26 cm; pinnae 4-8 pairs, opposite, 6-12 cm; petiolules short; leaflets 7-11 pairs, oblong or obovate, 1-2 cm x 4-8 mm, base oblique, apex emarginate, sometimes acute. Racemes subcorymbose, terminal or axillary, lax, to 25 cm. Pedicels unequal in length, 4.5-7 cm. Receptacle concave to turbinate, glabrous. Sepals 5, glabrous, lowest one ca. 1.4 cm, others ca. 1 cm. Petals orange-red or yellow, orbicular, 1-2.5 cm, margin wavy, with claw subequal to limb in length. Stamens very far exserted; filaments red, 5-6 cm, thick and hairy in basal part. Ovary glabrous; style orange-yellow, long, 5-6.5 mm. Legume blackish brown when ripe, oblanceolate-oblong, narrow and thin, 6-10 x 1.5-2 cm, not winged, glabrous, indehiscent, apex rounded, upper suture ending in a sharp beak. Seeds 6-9"  (Flora of China online).

"Shrub to 3-4 m tall, the branches with short scattered prickles.  Leaves alternate bipinnate, pinnae 4-8 pairs, each with 7-11 pairs of elliptic, obtuse, obliquely inequilateral light green leaflets about 2-2.5 cm long; flowers red-and-yellow, or (var. flava) all yellow, the petals crinkly-edged, in long terminal racemes; filaments longer than petals, red; pod coriaceous, oblong, smooth, brown to black, to 10 cm long, several-seeded; seeds compressed, brown, usually 6-8 per pod"  (Stone, 1970; p. 308).

Habitat/ecology:  In New Caledonia, "commun dans les jardins; ne semble pas se naturaliser" (MacKee, 1994; p. 72). Arid lowlands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; p. 133).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Tropical America (Smith, 1985; pp. 92-93). Cultivated and naturalized throughout the tropics (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 41)
Cultivated ornamental. Voucher cited: Garber 1087 (BISH)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Penrhyn (Tongareva) Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Etal (Ettan) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Lukunor (Núkúnooch) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Murilo (Mwiriné) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Marshall, Mae/Fosberg, F. R. (1975) (p. 35)
Vouchers cited: Marshall 7 (US),Marshall 86 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. (1989) (p. 47)
Voucher cited: Manner & Mallon 215 (GUAM), Manner & Mallon 216 (GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Satawan Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 16)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Mokil (Mwokil) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pingelap Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 79)
Vouchers cited: Glassman 2793 (US), Kanehira 1678 (NY)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 89)
Vouchers cited: A. Dores 54 (NY, PTBG), A. Dores 223 (NY, PTBG), F.R. Fosberg 26241 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2793 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 46123)
Taxon name on voucher: Caesalpinia pulcherrima
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Evans, M. (1969) (p. 7)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 46652 (US), Evans 352 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ifalik (Ifaluk) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Lamotrek Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Satawal Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Satawal Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1969) (p. 7)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 46853 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Woleai Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 92-93)
Voucher cited: DA 16860
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 92-93)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 84, DA 11913, Lady Cecil 236, DA 12088
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: B.G. Decker 1302 (PAP), R.L. Oliver & P.A. Schäfer 3177 (PAP)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 141)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 63105
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 34)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 64881 (US), Fosberg 64882 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 47)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 141)
Voucher cited: BRY 25381
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 47)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 141)
Voucher cited: Florence 4003
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2671 (PAP), J. Florence 4003 (PAP)
Ornementale commune.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 308)
Vouchers cited: Stone 4680 (GUAM), Stone 4871 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 23)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ebon (Epoon) Atoll   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1962) (p. 19)
Vouchers cited: St. John 21659 (US), Fosberg 26769 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 100)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll   Anderson, Donald (1951) (p. i)
Voucher cited: Anderson 3706
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 8)
"Rare; only a couple plants observed as decoratives by houses in Ine".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 11)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 27031 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 79)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mejit (Mãjej) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (pp. 137-138)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 58789 (US), Thaman & Manner 38 (SUVA)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 72-73)
Voucher cited: Däniker 2885
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 72-73)
Vouchers cited: de Pompéry s.n., Le Rat 61, MacKee 26753; var. flava Hort.; voucher cited: MacKee 42376
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 55)
Vouchers cited: CHR 169766, CHR 169768
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 61)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9742 (BISH)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 62)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 97)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 62)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 223)
Planted as an ornamental, not found wild.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 267)
Cultivated throughout the settled areas, in some regions naturalized.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 36)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 53)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 137)
Cited: Lister.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Futuna Island introduced
cultivated
Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. (1985)
Morat & Veillon, 1985, cited in Meyer, 2007
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 34)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 134)
Ornamental.
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) uncertain if native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) uncertain if native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) uncertain if native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) uncertain if native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
West Papua Province (Indonesia) (western New Guinea Island) (formerly Irian Jaya) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) uncertain if native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) uncertain if native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) uncertain if native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 21)
Cultivated only
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 107)
Naturalized
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Comoro Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Maldive Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 20)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Rodrigues Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 51)
Voucher cited: Todd 24
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Groupe d'Aldabra introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Arizona, Texas
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 17 JUN 2004 and was last updated on 7 MAR 2013.