Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Axonopus fissifolius
(Raddi) Kuhlm., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 16 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Axonopus affinis Chase; Paspalum fissifolium Raddi

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: lei di tan cao

English: caratao grass, carpet grass, common carpet grass, narrow-leaved carpetgrass

Spanish: gramalote, zacate amargo

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Cespitose perennial [grass], ± stoloniferous; culms 20-60 cm tall, unbranched, internodes up to 2 mm in diameter, pithy, glabrous, nodes glabrous or slightly bearded.  Sheaths compressed, glabrous except for the ciliate, overlapping margins, inner margin thin; ligule a truncate, ciliolate, fringed membrane 0.3-0.5 mm long; blades linear, flat or folded, 4-15 cm long, 3-5 mm wide, papillose-ciliate near base, otherwise glabrous, apex obtuse.  Inflorescences 5-11 cm long, composed of 2-7 divergent racemes on a short common rachis, racemes slender, 3.5-5 cm long, rachis trigonous, ca. 0.5 mm in diameter, scabrous on angles, peduncles exserted up to 16 cm from terminal sheath; spikelets subsessile, imbricate, elliptic-obovate, 2.3-2.8 mm long, acute, pedicels less than 0.2 mm long, sparsely pubescent on margins of glume and sterile lemma and at apex; second glume and first (sterile) lemma equal, 2-nerved, nerves submarginal; fertile floret pale yellowish brown.  Caryopsis tan to pale brown, compressed-ellipsoid to lenticular, 1.4-1.8 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1500-1502).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and common in wet pastures, disturbed wet forest and bogs, 160-1,220 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1500-1502). In New Caledonia, "introduit comme plante fourragère, maintenant assez commun en lieux frais et humides loin des pâturages" (MacKee, 1994; p. 57).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Subtropical North America, American tropics; naturalized in paleotropics (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 44)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 32)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 11)
"This species was introduced as a pasture and lawn grass, but as a pasture grass it is not very palatable and forms a dense mat that crowds out other species". Voucher cited: M. Lazarides 8051 (CANB, K)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 334)
Voucher cited: DA 5685
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 334)
Voucher cited: DA 8887
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 334)
Voucher cited: C.R. Turbet 15
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 334)
Vouchers cited: DA 8195, DA 8305, DA 8448, DA 7625, DA 9397, DA 3962, DA 8693, DA 9042, DA 7952, DA 1323, DA 7681, DA 7668, DA 7715, DA 7771
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 40185)
Taxon name on voucher: Axonopus fissifolius
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Axonopus affinis M.A. Chase. Voucher cited: J. Florence 8549 (PAP)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 42498)
Taxon name on voucher: Axonopus fissifolius
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 42501)
Taxon name on voucher: Axonopus fissifolius
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 329)
Voucher cited: Fosberg & Sachet 63317
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Axonopus affinis M.A. Chase. Voucher cited: J. Florence 3601 (PAP)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Axonopus affinis M.A. Chase. Vouchers cited: J. Florence 8730 (PAP), J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11434 (PAP). "Paraît d'introduction récente, station ouverte et piétinée".
Cultivée
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1500-1502)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1500-1502)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1500-1502)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1500-1502)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Hughes, Guy D'Oyly (1995) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: Hughes 374 (US)
Naturalized in upper elevations from 800-1100 m at least along roads, trails, and forest plantations.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1500-1502)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 380)
Assez commun en lieux frais et humides loin des pâturages.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 57)
Voucher cited: Sarlin 41 s.loc.
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (pp. 162-163)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
Sykes, W. R./West, C. J. (1996) (p. 457)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 536)
"Disturbed ground, waste land, pastures, lawns, roadsides, tracks in open forest and margins of scrub".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 46)
Voucher cited: Sykes 1378
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 39)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
Henty, E. E. (1969) (p. 33)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 9)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 69)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 65)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 3039)
Taxon name on voucher: Axonopus affinis
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 3945)
Taxon name on voucher: Axonopus affinis
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 97)
Vouchers cited: Lawrence 269, Soakai 279, Soakai 734
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 46)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 9)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Moist muddy or sandy meadows, naturalized. Xizang.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 324)
As Axonopus affinis A. Chase
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 9)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 536)
"Disturbed ground, waste land, pastures, lawns, roadsides, tracks in open forest and margins of scrub".
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 17)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Moist muddy or sandy meadows, naturalized.
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 40)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  See also A. compressus.

Control: 

Chemical: "Sensitive to glyphosate.  Directed foliar spray applications of 1-1.5% glyphosate product effectively control Axonpus and can be used to select in favor of desirable vegetation"  (Motooka et al., 2003).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 1 MAR 2013.