Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Axonopus compressus
(Sw.) Beauv., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

Reject, score: 12 (Go to the risk assessment (Australia))
High risk, score: 15 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific))

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: di tan cao

English: American carpet grass, blanket grass, broadleaf carpet grass, carpet grass, Dorrington grass, flat jointgrass, lawn grass, Louisiana grass, savannah grass, tropical carpet grass, wide-leaved carpet grass

Fijian: kambutu ni vavalangi

French: buffalo américain, herbe de la Louisiane, herbe gazon

Japanese: tsurume-hishiba

Spanish: alfombra, barbacoa, cañamazo dulce, grama, grama trenza, pasto chato, pasto jesuita, zacate amargo

Habit:  grass

Description:  "A creeping, stoloniferous, perennial grass; flowering culms erect, 15 to 16 cm high, solid, laterally compressed, the stolons strongly branched, rooting at each node; leaf sheaths strongly compressed, finely hairy along the outer margin, otherwise smooth, the nodes densely pubescent; ligule very short, fringed with short hairs; blade lanceolate, flat, 4 to 15 cm long, 2.5 to 15 mm wide, with broadly rounded base and blunt apex, often fringed with hairs; inflorescence with slender peduncles, two to four, seldom eight, developing successively, the secondary and succeeding inflorescences remaining hidden inside the sheath but ultimately projecting beyond the sheath (long-exserted); peduncle smooth, bearing at its apex two slender, one-sided spikes, usually 5 to 8 cm long, often with a third below them, rarely a fourth; spikelets oblong, rather acute, 2 to 2.5 mm long, 1 to 1.25 mm wide, pale green or tinged with purple, solitary on alternate sides of rachis and forming two rows, ciliate on the margins; lower glume absent, the upper as long as the spikelet with two nerves near each margin; anthers yellowish white or slightly tinged with purple; grain (caryopsis) yellowish brown, about 1.25 mm long.  It is commonly distinguished by the short ligule which is fringed with short hairs and by the inflorescences which develop successively.  The secondary and succeeding inflorescences remain hidden inside the sheath but ultimately become long-exserted" (Holm et al., 1977; p. 180).

"Perennial, stoloniferous grass; culms to 5 dm long, relatively stout, compressed, usually densely pubescent at nodes, the stolons elongate, with short internodes and short, broad, obtuse blades; cauline leaf blades to 20 cm long and to 12 mm wide, the uppermost small, the margins ciliate; racemes 2-5, mostly to 7 cm long, ascending, the upper two paired, the remainder separated; spikelets to 3 mm long, sparsely pilose, the second glume and sterile lemma distinctly pointed beyond the fruit"  (Welsh, 1998; p. 329).

Habitat/ecology:  "Troublesome as a weed mainly along the equator.  It needs sun but will tolerate shade.  It is found in lawns and, indeed, is a valuable lawn cover for some areas.  It is found in gardens, waysides, and waste places.  The species grows best if the soil is rich, the ground is moist, and the climate is slightly humid so that the plant is not subjected to extreme periods of low humidity.  It is found in the tropical rain forest areas of Fiji, at all elevations in Ceylon, and under the shade of mature rubber trees in Southeast Asia.  Like most plants, it performs best in fertile areas but also grows remarkably well on poor sandy soils if moisture is present.  It grows over a wide range of soil pH and likes a compact soil"  (Holm et al., 1977; pp. 180, 183). Pastures, roadsides and other disturbed, moist places to 800 m elevation. Forms mats that can exclude other species.  "[C]ommon in lawns and sunny, disturbed places" (Whistler, 1988; p. 46). In New Caledonia, "introduit selon la tradition locale vers 1943 pour gazonner des installations militaires américaines; est déjà pourtant cité par Jacques (1940). Parfois spontané mais moins commun que [Axonopus fissifolius]" (MacKee, 1994; p. 57).

Propagation:  "The plant can reproduce by seeds or by vegetative parts.  Under favorable conditions the plant may flower continuously" (Holm et al., 1977; p. 183).

Native range:  Southern US, south to South America; now widely naturalized (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Voucher cited: Whistler 3325
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 34597)
Taxon name on voucher: Axonopus compressus
American Samoa
Swain's Island
Swain's Island   Whistler, W. A. (1983) (p. 17)
Voucher cited: Whistler 3412
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Anon. (1988)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 204)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 22)
"Introduced to the Island as a pasture grass". Voucher cited: J. Pickard 2841 (NSW)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Alcedo, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Cerro Azul, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
Presence not verified.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 31)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 10)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 62)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 31)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (pp. 125-126)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2426 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 54)
Vouchers cited: T.W. Flynn 6087 (K, PTBG), D.H. lorence 9496 (COM, NY, PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 24532)
Taxon name on voucher: Axonopus compressus (Sw.) Beauv.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2006) (voucher ID: PTBG 44883)
Taxon name on voucher: Axonopus compressus
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 31)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 333)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 592, DA 8775
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 333)
Vouchers cited: DA 1625, Greenwood 1108, DA 7296, DA 7297, DA 3962, DA 3631, DA 3634, DA 7694, DA 7702, DA 7770
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 42381)
Taxon name on voucher: Axonopus compressus
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 329)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 62729
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2607 (PAP), W.A. Whistler & M. Guérin 28 (PAP), J. Florence & J.-C. Jolinon 8092 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 38242)
Taxon name on voucher: Axonopus compressus (Sw.) Beauv.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 202)
Voucher cited: Stone 4085 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 31)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2007) (p. 29)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H40507 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2004) (p. 26)
Voucher cited: Starr & Starr 020225-3 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 19)
West Maui. Vouchers cited: Oppenheimer H70106 (BISH, PTBG), Oppenheimer & E. Ramanchak H100106 (BISH, PTBG), Oppenheimer H110102 (BISH, PTBG), Oppenheimer H110103 (BISH, PTBG), Starr & Martz 011105-1 (BISH), Oppenheimer H110112 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2004) (p. 26)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 011031-1 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 19)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H110126 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2004) (p. 15)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H120201 (BISH, PTBG)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 57)
Voucher cited: Veillon 1127
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 232)
Voucher cited: CHR 168744
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 46)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 54)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 39)
Palau
Kayangel Atoll
Kayangel Islet introduced
invasive
Miles, Joel (2015) (p. 2)
ref cites other taxa as "Cultivated," but not this one, so implication is that this taxon was found in a non-cultivated situation (PT@PhilipT.com/20170602)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 31)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 103)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1977) (voucher ID: BNM 912)
Taxon name on voucher: Axonopus compressus (Sw.) Beauv.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1977) (voucher ID: BNM 112)
Taxon name on voucher: Axonopus compressus (Sw.) Beauv.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 31)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 100)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3103)
Taxon name on voucher: Axonopus compressus (Sw.) Beauv.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3024)
Taxon name on voucher: Axonopus compressus (Sw.) Beauv.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 8)
Voucher: Lorence 9798 (PTBG, BNM, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 91)
Taxon name on voucher: Axonopus compressus
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 31)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 96)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1976) (voucher ID: BNM 10073)
Taxon name on voucher: Axonopus compressus (Sw.) Beauv.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 96)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 58)
Voucher: Lorence 9715 (PTBG, BNM, NY)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 8)
Taxon name on voucher: Axonopus compressus
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngercheu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 58)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 96)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 106)
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 25)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 182-184)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 46)
Voucher cited: Parham 9101
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 49)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 58)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15420
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 58)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15253
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. (1985)
Morat & Veillon, 1985, cited in Meyer, 2007
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 46)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 182-184)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 41)
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 10)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 324)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Brunei
Brunei (Negara Brunei Darussalam) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country)   Forman, Leonard/Green, Peter S. (1998) (p. 10)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 17)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. plate)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 63, 76)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 105)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 41)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 55)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2665
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  See also A. fissifolius.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 1 MAR 2013.