Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Ardisia elliptica
Thunb., Primulaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 11 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Ardisia humilis sensu Mez, non Vahl

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: dong fang zi jin niu

English: duck's eye, ellliptical-leaf ardisia, shoebutton ardisia

Maori (Cook Islands): venevene tinitō, vine tinitō

Tahitian: ati popa‘a, atiu

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Branched shrubs up to 4 m tall, glabrous.  Leaves alternate, obovate or oblanceolate, 6-9 cm long, 1.5-4 cm wide, lateral nerves numerous, not merging into a definite marginal nerve except at lower part of leaf, margins entire, apex obtuse or broadly acute, base cuneate and decurrent on the petiole, petioles 4-8 mm long.  Flowering branches 10-20 cm long, leaves scattered along upper half, inflorescences axillary, umbellate to racemose, peduncles 1.5-3 cm long, pedicels ca. 1 cm long; sepals suborbicular, ca. 2 mm long, the surface black punctate, margins hyaline and ciliolate; corolla lobes pale lavender, lanceolate, conspicuously punctate.  Drupes red when immature, black at maturity, globose, ca. 5 mm in diameter, densely punctate" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 932-933, 1885).

Habitat/ecology:  Moist and wet forests and open areas.  "This shade-tolerant, evergreen tree grows rapidly, forming dense monotypic stands that prevent establishment of all other species.  The tree is probably not resistant to fire. The species is usually found in wet, lowland areas" in Hawai‘i (Smith, 1985; p. 185). In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in disturbed hala forest, mesic forest, and lower portions of wet forest, 5-550 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 932-933, 1885).  "Forms dense stands in pastures and disturbed forests"  (Motooka et al., 2003).  Moist valleys to 500 m in French Polynesia.  In the Northern Territory, Australia, "cultivated in gardens and has naturalised in the last 5-10 years.  Isolated, naturalised specimens exist in riparian vegetation within areas of dry rainforest associated with the monsoon belt of northern Australia" (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; pp. 25-26).

Propagation:  Frugivorous birds are the principal dispersal agents, attracted to the numerous red to blackish fruits.

Native range:  Asia (probably Sri Lanka).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 6)
Voucher: Flynn 7099 (PTBG, BISH, US)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 395)
Taxon name on voucher: Ardisia elliptica
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 6)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 6)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 88)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 6)
Voucher: Flynn 6995 (PTBG, BISH, US)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 81932)
Taxon name on voucher: Ardisia elliptica Thunb.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 163548)
Taxon name on voucher: Ardisia elliptica Thunb.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 664853)
Taxon name on voucher: Ardisia humilis Vahl
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 339)
Taxon name on voucher: Ardisia elliptica
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 190)
Vouchers cited: Moore 190, BRY 24856, BRY 25379
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 3393 (PAP), J. Florence 10344 (PAP)
Naturalisée, Menace pour la biodiversité
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 492092)
Taxon name on voucher: Ardisia elliptica Thunb.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 642098)
Taxon name on voucher: Ardisia elliptica Thunb.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 190)
Voucher cited: Fosberg & Stone 61301
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2304 (PAP)
Naturalisée. Menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 493612)
Taxon name on voucher: Ardisia elliptica Thunb.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 932-933)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 932-933)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 932-933)
East Maui
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Meidell, J. Scott/Oppenheimer, H. L./Bartlett, R. T. (1998) (p. 7)
West Maui. Voucher cited: Meidell & Oppenheimer 203 (BISH)
A serious naturalized pest in lowland mesic and wet forests.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 932-933)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 5)
Voucher: Flynn 6930 (PTBG, US, SAMOA)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 163547)
Taxon name on voucher: Ardisia elliptica Thunb.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 417491)
Taxon name on voucher: Ardisia elliptica Thunb.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 325)
Taxon name on voucher: Ardisia elliptica
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 44704)
Taxon name on voucher: Ardisia elliptica
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (pp. 25-26)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (pp. 25-26)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 117)
Ornamental.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 15)
Endangered
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Roadsides, scrub, near villages, edges of fields, along coasts.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
cultivated
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Maldive Islands   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 29)
Mascarene Islands
Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, La Reunion, Rodrigues)
Mascarene Islands introduced
invasive
Weber, Ewald (2003) (p. 54)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Mauremootoo, J. (2004) (pp. 7, 8)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
invasive
Weber, Ewald (2003) (p. 54)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
Francis, John K., ed. (2009)

Comments:  Widespread and probably beyond control in Vailima Reserve, Alaoa and other areas above Apia, Samoa (Space & Flynn, 2002).

Widespread throughout Rarotonga and present to a lesser extent on Mangaia, Cook Islands. There are scattered populations on Aitutaki and Ma‘uke as well (Space & Flynn, 2002).

Naturalized in the Northern Territory, Australia.

On the State of Hawai‘i and French Polynesia noxious weed lists.

A serious invasive species in hardwood forests and abandoned agricultural land in southern Florida (US) (Randall et al., 1996).

Planting of this species is prohibited in Miami-Dade County, Florida (U.S.) (Hunsberger, 2001).

See also A. crenata.

Control: 

Physical: Hand-pull seedlings.

Chemical: "In areas with a dense groundcover of seedlings, a broadcast spray of a glyphosate herbicide is effective, but be careful to avoid damaging desirable plants.  Mature specimens should be treated with a basal application of a triclopyhr herbicide mixed with an oil diluent" (Randall et al., 1996; p. 149).

"Susceptible to 2,4-D. Triclopyr, dicamba and metsulfuron not as effective. Spraying regrowth after mowing with 2,4-D very effective. Tebuthiuron at 2 lb/acre effective. Kline and Duquesnel reported good control with triclopyr ester at 10% in diesel applied to basal bark. Glyphosate foliar and triclopyr basal bark effective. Susceptible to very-low volume basal bark applications of Pathfinder II®, a ready-to-use formulation of triclopyr"  (Motooka et al., 2003).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 4 JUL 2012.