Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR)

Ulex europaeus
(Fabaceae)

furze, gorse, whin

image of Ulex europaeus image of Ulex europaeus image of Ulex europaeus
MORE IMAGES
HEAR home  >  species info  >  plants  >  Ulex europaeus (Fabaceae)
(hints)
Species description or overview Taxonomy & nomenclature Impacts Risk assessments Control methods
Biocontrol efforts Cultivation & propagation Images Distribution Books
Full-text articles Experts Other resources    

Let us know if you have suggestions for additional references to add to this page.

Gorse (Ulex europaeus is a thorny shrub with inch-long sharp spines that grows up to 6 feet tall. Gorse produces numerous bright yellow flowers, 1/3 to 1/2 inches long, that smell faintly of coconut.  Gorse (Ulex europaeus) is an aggressive, spiny shrub that has infests high elevation areas on Maui and Hawaii. Gorse "[f]orms dense, tall stands that shade out plants beneath. Renders high pastures totally unproductive and impassable. Even when killed by herbicides, the dead plants hinder access to pastures for over a year. Gorse is an extreme fire hazard. Direct competition from gorse and indirect effects of increased fire hazard threaten high-elevation mamane [ed.: Sophora chrysophylla] forests and associated native birds, especially the [ed.: endangered] palila (Loxioides bailleui)."  Ulex europaeus is native to Western Europe. 


Species description or overview

Information about Ulex europaeus from IUCN's ISSG/GISD
Information about Euonymus fortunei is available from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) (a product of IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group [ISSG]).

Ulex europaeus information from CTAHR (Motooka et al.) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Information about Ulex europaeus from "Weeds of Hawaii's pastures and natural areas: an identification and management guide" (Motooka et al. 2003) is provided by the University of Hawaii's College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR).

Ulex europaeus information from PIER
Information on Ulex europaeus as relevant to Pacific Islands is provided by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER).

Ulex europaeus information
Gorse ecology, habitat, dispersal, and management are from The Global Invasive Species Database.

Ulex europaeus description and ecology from GISD (ISSG)
A species description and information about the ecology of Ulex europaeus as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Taxonomy & nomenclature

GRIN nomenclature info for Ulex europaeus
Nomenclatural information about Ulex europaeus is provided by USDA/ARS/NGRP/GRIN.

Ulex europaeus information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Ulex europaeus--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.

Ulex europaeus information from ITIS
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS provides authoritative taxonomic information on Ulex europaeus, as well as other plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

IPNI nomenclature info for Ulex europaeus
Nomenclatural information about Ulex europaeus is provided by The International Plant Names Index (IPNI).


Impacts

Ulex europaeus (Fabaceae): species information from GCW
Information on Ulex europaeus as relevant to Pacific Islands is provided by the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Ulex europaeus impact information from GISD (ISSG)
Impact information regarding Ulex europaeus as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Risk assessments

Ulex europaeus weed risk assessment for Hawaii-Pacific
Results of a weed risk assessment for Ulex europaeus for the Hawaii-Pacific region are presented by the Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment team.


Control methods

Introductions for biological control in Hawaii 1997-2001 View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The introduction of 16 insect and five fungal species to control six weeds and four insect pests in Hawaii from 1997-2001 is discussed in a paper by the Hawaii Department of Agriculture (Proceedings Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2003).

Ulex europaeus information from CTAHR (Motooka et al.) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Information about Ulex europaeus from "Weeds of Hawaii's pastures and natural areas: an identification and management guide" (Motooka et al. 2003) is provided by the University of Hawaii's College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR).

Ulex europaeus management information from GISD (ISSG)
Management information for Ulex europaeus as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).

Summaries of herbicide trials for pasture, range, and non-cropland weed control -1999 View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Herbicide trials compare herbicides and methods of application on a variety of weedy species in Hawaii (University of Hawaii).

Herbicidal weed control methods for pastures and natural areas of Hawaii View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This comprehensive review of herbicide application methods includes calculations for formulations, and appendices listing herbicides registered for use in Hawaii and their toxicities (University of Hawaii, 2002).


Biocontrol efforts

Biological control of gorse in Hawaii: a program review
Markin, George P., Patrick Conant, Eloise Killgore, and Ernest Yoshioka. 2002. Biological control of gorse in Hawaii: a program review. pp. 53-1 in Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds). 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages. from http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/duffy/techr/129.pdf accessed 16 March 2008.

Introductions for biological control in Hawaii 1997-2001
Culliney, Thomas W., Walter T. Nagamine, and Kenneth K. Teramoto. 2003. Introductions for biological control in Hawaii 1997-2001. Proc. Hawaiian Entomol. Soc. (2003) 36:145-153.

Ulex europaeus as a biocontrol target in Hawaii
Information and references regarding Ulex europaeus as a biocontrol target in Hawaii--including the status of each of its biocontrol agents--are provided by the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

The Biological Control Program Against Gorse in New Zealand View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Gorse (Ulex europaeus L.: Fabaceae) has been a serious weed in New Zealand for over 100 years and continues to invade pastoral land, forest plantations, and vulnerable natural habitats. It has beneficial uses, but these are far outweighed by the costs. Gorse was once an important hedge plant, and until 1982, seed-feeding insects were the only biological controls considered appropriate. Exapion ulicis Forst. was released in 1931, and destroys about 35% of the annual seed crop. Six control agents have been introduced since 1988. Cydia succedana (Dennis and Schiffermüller) was released in 1992. Assessment at 1 site shows that the 2 seed-feeding insects can destroy about 90% of the annual seed crop. Gorse spider mite (Tetranychus lintearius Dufour) was introduced from several sources in Europe in 1989 and 1990, and established widely. Mite outbreaks severely damage plants, and reduce flowering, but populations large enough to kill mature gorse plants over wide areas cannot be sustained, probably because of predation. The gorse thrips, Sericothrips staphylinus Haliday, was introduced in 1990. It has spread only slowly, but significantly damaged gorse foliage in experimental studies. The foliage-feeding moths Agonopterix ulicetella (Stainton) and Pempelia genistella (Duponchel) have been released. Establishment is not yet certain. The scythridid moth, Scythris grandipennis (Haworth), has also been released, but it did not establish. No further releases are planned. Development of a bioherbicide augments the classical approach to biological control of gorse. The paper discusses the impact of control agents, and the future of the research. The New Zealand program has provided information and control agents to similar programs in Hawaii, Oregon and California, Chile, and Australia. (from the abstract)


Cultivation & propagation

The invasiveness of the noxious weed gorse (Ulex europaeus L.) influenced by symbiosis in agricultural and natural habitats of Hawaii
Research on the role of nitrogen-fixing symbiont bradyrhizobia on the invasive nature of gorse is described in this progress report from the University of Hawaii.


Images

Images of Ulex europaeus (Fabaceae) (gorse)
Links to high-resolution free images of Ulex europaeus (Fabaceae) (gorse) by Forest & Kim Starr (USGS) are available here.

Ulex europaeus information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Ulex europaeus in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Ulex europaeus images from PIER
Images of Ulex europaeus provided by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER).


Distribution

Ulex europaeus information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Ulex europaeus in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Ulex europaeus information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Ulex europaeus--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.

Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy (2000) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The status of invasive plants, vertebrates, arthropods, molluscs, and crustaceans, and options for a regional invasive species strategy for the South Pacific are presented in this series of articles from the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, 2000.

Ulex europaeus worldwide distribution from GISD (ISSG)
Worldwide distribution information about Ulex europaeus is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Books

Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives)
Veitch, C.R. and M.N. Clout (eds.) . 2002. Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. vii + 414pp. ISBN: 2-8317-0682-3.

Invasive plants of California's wildlands
Bossard, Carla C., John M. Randall, and Marc C. Hoshovsky (eds.) . 2000. Invasive plants of California's wildlands. University of California Press. 360 pp. illus. ISBN: 0-520-22547-3.

Weeds of the West
Whitson, Tom D., Larry C. Burrill, Steven A. Dewey, David W. Cudney, B.E. Nelson, Richard D. Lee, and Robert Parker. Whitson, Tom D. (ed.) . 2001. Weeds of the West. 9th ed. Laramie: University of Wyoming. ISBN: 0-941570-13-4.

Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide
Motooka, Philip, Luisa Castro, Duane Nelson, Guy Nagai, and Lincoln Ching. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (University of Hawaii--Manoa), Honolulu. 184 pp. color illus. ISBN: 1-929325-14-2.


Full-text articles

Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research
Stone, Charles P., Clifford W. Smith, and J. Timothy Tunison (eds.) . 1992. Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit. ISBN: 0-8248-1474-6.

Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy
South Pacific Regional Environmental Programme (SPREP). Sherley, Greg (ed.) . 2000. Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. Apia, Samoa: South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. ISBN: 982-04-0214-X.

Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives)
Veitch, C.R. and M.N. Clout (eds.) . 2002. Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. vii + 414pp. ISBN: 2-8317-0682-3.

Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide
Motooka, Philip, Luisa Castro, Duane Nelson, Guy Nagai, and Lincoln Ching. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (University of Hawaii--Manoa), Honolulu. 184 pp. color illus. ISBN: 1-929325-14-2.

Assessing the risks of plant invasions arising from collections in tropical botanical gardens
Dawson, Wayne, Ahmed S. Mndolwa, David F. R. P. Burslem, and Philip E. Hulme. 2008. Assessing the risks of plant invasions arising from collections in tropical botanical gardens. Biodiversity Conservation. Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii
Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds.) . 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages.

Biological control of gorse in Hawaii: a program review
Markin, George P., Patrick Conant, Eloise Killgore, and Ernest Yoshioka. 2002. Biological control of gorse in Hawaii: a program review. pp. 53-1 in Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds). 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages. from http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/duffy/techr/129.pdf accessed 16 March 2008.

Introductions for biological control in Hawaii 1997-2001
Culliney, Thomas W., Walter T. Nagamine, and Kenneth K. Teramoto. 2003. Introductions for biological control in Hawaii 1997-2001. Proc. Hawaiian Entomol. Soc. (2003) 36:145-153.


Experts

Ulex europaeus contacts from GISD (ISSG)
Contact information for experts on Ulex europaeus as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Other resources

Ulex europaeus references from GISD (ISSG)
References regarding Ulex europaeus as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


PDF icon Some documents posted on the HEAR website are in Adobe Acrobat PDF format. If your computer is not already set up to read these files, you can download the FREE Adobe Acrobat reader. You can set up most web browsers to automatically invoke this reader (as a "helper application" or "add-in") upon encountering documents of this type (refer to your browser's documentation for how to do this). download Acrobat reader


The Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk (HEAR) project was historically funded by the Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) through PIERC (USGS) with support from HCSU (UH Hilo). More details are available online. Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII)

species lists  ]    [  plants  ]    [  HEAR home  ]

Comments?  Questions?  Send e-mail to: webmaster@hear.org

The content of this page is based on information last generated on 07 August 2017 by PT. The template for this page was created on 15 March 2004 by EMS, and was last updated on 20 February 2006 by PT. Valid HTML 4.01!