Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR)

Sus scrofa
(Suidae)

pig

  
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Management plans Distribution Case studies Books In the news
Full-text articles Experts Other resources    

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Featured items

Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui
Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation on the feral pig also includes important information about strawberry guava as an invasive species on Maui (1982).


Species description or overview

Information about Sus scrofa from IUCN's ISSG/GISD
Information about Sus scrofa is available from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) (a product of IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group [ISSG]).

Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) in Australia/New Zealand
Information about feral pigs (Sus scrofa) in Australia/New Zealand is provided by authorities and Canberra University in Australia.

Literature review of domesticated, wild, and feral pigs from "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Extensive reviews of pigs through history and in Polynesia are presented in this literature review section of Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation on feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

Description of feral pigs: Chapter 5 from "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The distinct characteristics of feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley are discussed in this section of Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation on feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley, Maui (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

Wild boar species profile (USDA)
Wild boar (Sus scrofa) links, including video, citation database, distribution maps, and publications, are provided by the National Invasive Species Information Center.

Sus scrofa description and ecology from GISD (ISSG)
A species description and information about the ecology of Sus scrofa as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Taxonomy & nomenclature

Sus scrofa information from ITIS
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS provides authoritative taxonomic information on Sus scrofa, as well as other plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.


Impacts

Food and feeding habits of feral pigs: Chapter 6 from "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Stomach contents were analyzed to determine the feeding habits of feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley in this section of Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

Feral pigs, introduced mosquitoes, and the decline of Hawaii native birds View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
public domain (presumably)

Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy (2000) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The status of invasive plants, vertebrates, arthropods, molluscs, and crustaceans, and options for a regional invasive species strategy for the South Pacific are presented in this series of articles from the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, 2000.

Invasive predators: A synthesis of the past, present, and future View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Effects of various invasive predators on prey populations are described in a synthesis from USDA APHIS.

Controlling ungulate populations in native ecosystems in Hawaii View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
"Controlling ungulate populations in native ecosystems in Hawaii" is a 2005 position paper presented by the Hawaii Conservation Alliance.

Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui
Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation on the feral pig also includes important information about strawberry guava as an invasive species on Maui (1982).

Dispersal ecology of the strawberry guava: Chapter 7 from "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The synergy between feral pigs and strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum) is revealed in research on the dispersal mechanisms of strawberry guava in this section of Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

Management of feral pigs: Chapter 12 from "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Fencing, trapping, hunting, and poisons are options for managing feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley discussed in this section of Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

Sus scrofa impact information from GISD (ISSG)
Impact information regarding Sus scrofa as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).

The high cost of having no control program
Fencing free-roaming game mammals is expensive, but not doing it costs more. The economic and social costs of game mammal damage are explained.

The need for speedy reform of Hawaii's game management program
A description of the feral pig problem in Hawaii with excellent photographs and facts about the impacts pigs are having on native plants and animals are on this Rare Hawaii site.

Simply incompatible: healthy lands and feral swine
"Rare Hawaii" provides images and information about the impact of the feral pig (Sus scrofa) on native ecosystems in Hawaii.


Control methods

Controlling ungulate populations in native ecosystems in Hawaii View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
"Controlling ungulate populations in native ecosystems in Hawaii" is a 2005 position paper presented by the Hawaii Conservation Alliance.

Management of feral pigs: Chapter 12 from "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Fencing, trapping, hunting, and poisons are options for managing feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley discussed in this section of Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

Sus scrofa management information from GISD (ISSG)
Management information for Sus scrofa as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).

Non-native species in Haleakala National Park
Haleakala's strategy to fence the park to exclude alien ungulates; remove all populations of feral goats, pigs and deer; and place snares at remote areas to intercept any individual ungulate that penetrates the boundary fence, now preserves the native ecosystems.


Management plans

Management plans for invasive animals by species (USDA)
Management plans for invasive animals are provided by the National Invasive Species Information Center.


Distribution

Distribution of Sus scrofa (Pigs) in the Hawaiian Islands as of 05/98
Distribution of Sus scrofa (Pigs) in the Hawaiian Islands as of 05/98

Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy (2000) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The status of invasive plants, vertebrates, arthropods, molluscs, and crustaceans, and options for a regional invasive species strategy for the South Pacific are presented in this series of articles from the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, 2000.

History of feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley: Chapter 4 from "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The history of the feral pig invasion of Kipahulu Valley is discussed in this section of Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation on feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley, Maui (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

Sus scrofa worldwide distribution from GISD (ISSG)
Worldwide distribution information about Sus scrofa is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Case studies

Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii (abstract) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This abstract summarizes research relating food quality and population biology of the feral pig in Kipahulu Valley, from Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii (preface section with abstract) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This thesis preface includes the abstract summarizing research relating food quality and population biology of the feral pig in Kipahulu Valley, from Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii (Introduction section) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The history of invasive feral pigs and the rationale for the thesis are reviewed in this introduction to Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation on the feral pig in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

History of feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley: Chapter 4 from "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The history of the feral pig invasion of Kipahulu Valley is discussed in this section of Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation on feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley, Maui (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

Population characteristics of feral pigs: Chapter 8 from "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Live trapping was used to determine population characteristics of the feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley in this section of Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

Home range, movement and activity patterns of feral pigs: Chapter 9 from "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Radiotelemetry was used to collect location data of the feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley in this section of Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

Hematology and blood biochemistry of feral pigs: Chapter 10 from "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Blood chemistry of 31 feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley was analyzed for differences in subject age and sex, and compared with blood profiles of domestic pigs in this section of Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

Sources of mortality of feral pigs: Chapter 11 from "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Field evidence of mortality of feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley was scant, and mostly restricted to piglets as reported in this section of Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

General discussion: Chapter 13 from "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Factors affecting the ecology of feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley are discussed in this section of Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.


Books

Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives)
Veitch, C.R. and M.N. Clout (eds.) . 2002. Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. vii + 414pp. ISBN: 2-8317-0682-3.


In the news

Online articles about introduced game animals and their harmful effects on the environment
Annotated links to news and magazine articles regarding hunting and feral mammals are provided by rarehawaii.org.

Landowners fight hunter trespassing
Major landowners in the eastern part of the Big Island have banded together to tackle trespassing by pig hunters who are accused of illegally tracking and killing pigs on private land (Star-Adveriser, 7/26/2010).

Making hunting pono--save Hawaii's native creatures
The Honolulu Star-Bulletin (http://starbulletin.com)

Hunters hit conservancy for hiring a foreign firm
Angry Molokai hunters decry The Nature Conservancy's hiring a New Zealand firm to track and hunt wild pigs and goats on remote conservation land on Maui and Molokai (Honolulu Star Bulletin 9/1/2007).


Full-text articles

Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui
Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation on the feral pig also includes important information about strawberry guava as an invasive species on Maui (1982).

Controlling ungulate populations in native ecosystems in Hawaii View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
"Controlling ungulate populations in native ecosystems in Hawaii" is a 2005 position paper presented by the Hawaii Conservation Alliance.

Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii (abstract) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This abstract summarizes research relating food quality and population biology of the feral pig in Kipahulu Valley, from Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii (preface section with abstract) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This thesis preface includes the abstract summarizing research relating food quality and population biology of the feral pig in Kipahulu Valley, from Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii (Introduction section) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The history of invasive feral pigs and the rationale for the thesis are reviewed in this introduction to Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation on the feral pig in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

Literature review of domesticated, wild, and feral pigs from "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Extensive reviews of pigs through history and in Polynesia are presented in this literature review section of Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation on feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

History of feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley: Chapter 4 from "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The history of the feral pig invasion of Kipahulu Valley is discussed in this section of Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation on feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley, Maui (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

Description of feral pigs: Chapter 5 from "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The distinct characteristics of feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley are discussed in this section of Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation on feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley, Maui (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

Population characteristics of feral pigs: Chapter 8 from "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Live trapping was used to determine population characteristics of the feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley in this section of Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

Home range, movement and activity patterns of feral pigs: Chapter 9 from "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Radiotelemetry was used to collect location data of the feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley in this section of Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

Hematology and blood biochemistry of feral pigs: Chapter 10 from "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Blood chemistry of 31 feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley was analyzed for differences in subject age and sex, and compared with blood profiles of domestic pigs in this section of Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

Sources of mortality of feral pigs: Chapter 11 from "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Field evidence of mortality of feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley was scant, and mostly restricted to piglets as reported in this section of Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

Management of feral pigs: Chapter 12 from "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Fencing, trapping, hunting, and poisons are options for managing feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley discussed in this section of Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

General discussion: Chapter 13 from "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Factors affecting the ecology of feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley are discussed in this section of Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

Recovery of vegetation of a montane bog following protection from feral pig rooting
Loope, Lloyd L., A.C. Medeiros, and B.H. Gagne. 1991. Recovery of vegetation of a montane bog following protection from feral pig rooting. Studies in montane bogs of Haleakala National Park. Technical report 77. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa.

Recovery of vegetation of a montane bog following protection from feral pig rooting
Loope, Lloyd L., Arthur C. Medeiros, and Betsy H. Gagnť. 1991. Recovery of vegetation of a montane bog following protection from feral pig rooting. Technical report 77. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa.

Kanaio Natural Area Reserve: biological inventory and management recommendations
Medeiros, Arthur C., Lloyd L. Loope, and C.G. Chimera. 1993. Kanaio Natural Area Reserve: biological inventory and management recommendations. Natural Area Reserve System, State of Hawaii.

Proposal to study feral pigs in KÓpahulu Valley, Haleakala National Park
Smith, Clifford W. and Cheong H. Diong. 1977. Proposal to study feral pigs in KÓpahulu Valley, Haleakala National Park. Technical report 19. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

Succession patterns after pig digging in grassland communities on Mauna Loa, Hawaii
Spatz, Gunter and Dieter Mueller-Dombois. 1975. Succession patterns after pig digging in grassland communities on Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Phytocoecologica 3:346-73.

Responses of Hawaiian ecosystems to removal of feral pigs and goats
Stone, Charles P., Linda W. Pratt, and J. Timothy Tunison. 1992. Responses of Hawaiian ecosystems to removal of feral pigs and goats. In Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawai'i: Management and research, edited by Charles P. Stone, Clifford W. Smith, and J. Timothy Tunison, 666-704. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

Hunting wild pigs in Hawaii
Tillett, E.E. 1937. Hunting wild pigs in Hawaii. Paradise of the Pacific 49, no. 3:9, 29.

Early succession in pig-disturbed mountain parkland, Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park
Tunison, J. Timothy, Rhonda K. Loh, Linda W. Pratt, and V. Anne Dina Kageler. 1994. Early succession in pig-disturbed mountain parkland, Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Technical report 89. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

The expansion of koa forest after cattle and goat removal, Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park
Tunison, J. Timothy, A.A. McKinney, and W.L. Markiewicz. 1995. The expansion of koa forest after cattle and goat removal, Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Technical report 99. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research
Stone, Charles P., Clifford W. Smith, and J. Timothy Tunison (eds.) . 1992. Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit. ISBN: 0-8248-1474-6.

Hunting as a control method for wild pigs in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park: A report for resource management
Barrett, Reginald H. and Charles P. Stone. 1983. Hunting as a control method for wild pigs in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park: A report for resource management. Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii.

Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy
South Pacific Regional Environmental Programme (SPREP). Sherley, Greg (ed.) . 2000. Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. Apia, Samoa: South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. ISBN: 982-04-0214-X.

Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives)
Veitch, C.R. and M.N. Clout (eds.) . 2002. Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. vii + 414pp. ISBN: 2-8317-0682-3.

Vegetation recovery following pig removal in 'Ola'a-koa rainforest unit, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
Loh, R.K., Tunison, T.J. 1999. Vegetation recovery following pig removal in 'Ola'a-koa rainforest unit, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. PCSU technical report #123 (January 1999).

From endemic to generic: Feral pigs and the destruction of Hawaii's native forests
Van Driesche, Jason. 2000. From endemic to generic: Feral pigs and the destruction of Hawaii's native forests. In Nature out of place, 7-31. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. ISBN: 1-55963-757-9.

Some environmental indicators related to feral pig activity in a Hawaiian rain forest
Anderson, Puanani. 1994. Some environmental indicators related to feral pig activity in a Hawaiian rain forest. Master's thesis, University of Hawaii.

Snaring to control feral pigs Sus scrofa in a remote Hawaiian rain forest
Anderson, Stephen J. and Charles P. Stone. 1993. Snaring to control feral pigs Sus scrofa in a remote Hawaiian rain forest. Biological Conservation 63:195-201.

Indexing sizes of feral pig populations in a variety of Hawaiian natural areas
Anderson, Stephen J. and Charles P. Stone. 1994. Indexing sizes of feral pig populations in a variety of Hawaiian natural areas. Transactions of the Western Section of the Wildlife Society 30:26-39.

Wild pigs in Hawaii
Bryan, L.W. 1937. Wild pigs in Hawaii. Paradise of the Pacific 49, no. 12:31-32.

Association between feral pig disturbance and the composition of some alien plant assemblages in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
Aplet, Gregory H., Stephen J. Anderson, and Charles P. Stone. 1991. Association between feral pig disturbance and the composition of some alien plant assemblages in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Vegetatio 95, no. 1:55-.

Feral pig activity
Cooray, Rajit G. and Dieter Mueller-Dombois. 1981. Feral pig activity. In Island ecosystems: Biological organization in selected Hawaiian communities, edited by Dieter Mueller-Dombois, Kent W. Bridges, and Hampton L. Carson, 309-17. Stroudsburg, PA: Hutchinson Ross Publishing Company.

A portable metal box trap for live-capture of feral pigs
Diong, Cheong H. 1981. A portable metal box trap for live-capture of feral pigs. Technical report 37. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

A comparison and evaluation of feral pig management in two national parks
Hone, Jim and Charles P. Stone. 1989. A comparison and evaluation of feral pig management in two national parks. Wildlife Society Bulletin 17, no. 4:419-25.

Vegetation changes in a subalpine grassland in Hawaii following disturbance by feral pigs
Jacobi, James D. 1981. Vegetation changes in a subalpine grassland in Hawaii following disturbance by feral pigs. Technical report 41. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

Phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal and predation, and seedling establishment of three invasive plant species in a Hawaiian rain forest
Medeiros, A.C. 2004. Phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal and predation, and seedling establishment of three invasive plant species in a Hawaiian rain forest. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Zoology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu.

Eradicating feral pigs in montane mesic habitat at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
Katahira, Larry K., Patrick M. Finnegan, and Charles P. Stone. 1993. Eradicating feral pigs in montane mesic habitat at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Wildlife Society Bulletin 21, no. 3:269-74.


Experts

Sus scrofa contacts from GISD (ISSG)
Contact information for experts on Sus scrofa as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Other resources

Rare Hawaii
The Rare Hawaii website highlights the severe impacts of feral mammals (e.g., pigs, goats, deer, sheep) on native ecosystems of Hawaii.

Literature cited from "Population biology and management of the feral pig (Sus scrofa L.) in Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
An extensive bibliography is in Cheong H. Diong's doctoral dissertation (University of Hawaii, 1982). Diong's complete dissertation is available online.

Phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal and predation, and seedling establishment of three invasive plant species in a Hawaiian rain forest
After rain forest of Haleakala National Park was fenced in the late 1980s, native vegetation responded vigorously yet three problematic plant invaders (Clidemia hirta, Hedychium gardnerianum, and Psidium cattleianum) continued to spread unabated and became of great concern to Park managers. This contribution provides a quantitative assessment of crucial life history junctures (quantitative phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal, seed predation, seedling establishment) to assist Haleakala NP and other managers of Hawaiian rain forests. It also provides detailed information for potentially identifying key characteristics in prevention, rapid response, and prioritization of incoming invasive species. (This document is the 2004 Ph.D. dissertation of Dr. Arthur C. Medeiros for the Department of Zoology at the University of Hawaii.)

Recovery of vegetation of a montane bog following protection from feral pig rooting
Loope, Lloyd L., Arthur C. Medeiros, and Betsy H. Gagnť. 1991. Recovery of vegetation of a montane bog following protection from feral pig rooting. Technical report 77. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa.

Proposal to study feral pigs in KÓpahulu Valley, Haleakala National Park
Smith, Clifford W. and Cheong H. Diong. 1977. Proposal to study feral pigs in KÓpahulu Valley, Haleakala National Park. Technical report 19. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

Succession patterns after pig digging in grassland communities on Mauna Loa, Hawaii
Spatz, Gunter and Dieter Mueller-Dombois. 1975. Succession patterns after pig digging in grassland communities on Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Phytocoecologica 3:346-73.

Responses of Hawaiian ecosystems to removal of feral pigs and goats
Stone, Charles P., Linda W. Pratt, and J. Timothy Tunison. 1992. Responses of Hawaiian ecosystems to removal of feral pigs and goats. In Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawai'i: Management and research, edited by Charles P. Stone, Clifford W. Smith, and J. Timothy Tunison, 666-704. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

Hunting wild pigs in Hawaii
Tillett, E.E. 1937. Hunting wild pigs in Hawaii. Paradise of the Pacific 49, no. 3:9, 29.

Early succession in pig-disturbed mountain parkland, Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park
Tunison, J. Timothy, Rhonda K. Loh, Linda W. Pratt, and V. Anne Dina Kageler. 1994. Early succession in pig-disturbed mountain parkland, Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Technical report 89. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

Hunting as a control method for wild pigs in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park: A report for resource management
Barrett, Reginald H. and Charles P. Stone. 1983. Hunting as a control method for wild pigs in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park: A report for resource management. Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii.

Vegetation recovery following pig removal in 'Ola'a-koa rainforest unit, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
Loh, R.K., Tunison, T.J. 1999. Vegetation recovery following pig removal in 'Ola'a-koa rainforest unit, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. PCSU technical report #123 (January 1999).

Some environmental indicators related to feral pig activity in a Hawaiian rain forest
Anderson, Puanani. 1994. Some environmental indicators related to feral pig activity in a Hawaiian rain forest. Master's thesis, University of Hawaii.

Snaring to control feral pigs Sus scrofa in a remote Hawaiian rain forest
Anderson, Stephen J. and Charles P. Stone. 1993. Snaring to control feral pigs Sus scrofa in a remote Hawaiian rain forest. Biological Conservation 63:195-201.

Indexing sizes of feral pig populations in a variety of Hawaiian natural areas
Anderson, Stephen J. and Charles P. Stone. 1994. Indexing sizes of feral pig populations in a variety of Hawaiian natural areas. Transactions of the Western Section of the Wildlife Society 30:26-39.

Wild pigs in Hawaii
Bryan, L.W. 1937. Wild pigs in Hawaii. Paradise of the Pacific 49, no. 12:31-32.

Association between feral pig disturbance and the composition of some alien plant assemblages in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
Aplet, Gregory H., Stephen J. Anderson, and Charles P. Stone. 1991. Association between feral pig disturbance and the composition of some alien plant assemblages in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Vegetatio 95, no. 1:55-.

Feral pig activity
Cooray, Rajit G. and Dieter Mueller-Dombois. 1981. Feral pig activity. In Island ecosystems: Biological organization in selected Hawaiian communities, edited by Dieter Mueller-Dombois, Kent W. Bridges, and Hampton L. Carson, 309-17. Stroudsburg, PA: Hutchinson Ross Publishing Company.

KÓpahulu Valley feral pig study
Diong, Cheong H. Smith, Clifford W. (ed.) . 1978. KÓpahulu Valley feral pig study. Biannual report #11, edited by Clifford W. Smith. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

A portable metal box trap for live-capture of feral pigs
Diong, Cheong H. 1981. A portable metal box trap for live-capture of feral pigs. Technical report 37. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

A comparison and evaluation of feral pig management in two national parks
Hone, Jim and Charles P. Stone. 1989. A comparison and evaluation of feral pig management in two national parks. Wildlife Society Bulletin 17, no. 4:419-25.

Vegetation changes in a subalpine grassland in Hawaii following disturbance by feral pigs
Jacobi, James D. 1981. Vegetation changes in a subalpine grassland in Hawaii following disturbance by feral pigs. Technical report 41. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

Eradicating feral pigs in montane mesic habitat at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
Katahira, Larry K., Patrick M. Finnegan, and Charles P. Stone. 1993. Eradicating feral pigs in montane mesic habitat at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Wildlife Society Bulletin 21, no. 3:269-74.

Sus scrofa references from GISD (ISSG)
References regarding Sus scrofa as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


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