Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR)

Salvinia molesta
(Salviniaceae)

African payal, aquarium water-moss, giant salvinia, kariba weed, salvinia, water fern

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HEAR CLOSING      HEAR CLOSING      HEAR CLOSING

A message from Dr. David Duffy, Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (PCSU), University of Hawaii (posted 05 November 2012):

Because of a lack of funds, HEAR (www.hear.org) may close as soon as December 15, although there may be enough funds to extend it until February 15. This will mean several things. The web site will be placed on a new server although it is not clear who will pay for the server or for transitioning the site. HEAR data will not be updated. The Pacific Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) (http://www.hear.org/pier/abtproj.htm) site will also become frozen, as will numerous books, reports and papers (http://www.hear.org/). As software evolves we will likely lose the ability to access the data. The various list servers will need new owners, otherwise moderated lists will cease to function altogether, while other lists will not be able to add or delete members. The photo collection (http://www.hear.org/starr/images/?o=plants) will remain accessible, but only through a third party site that will charge for access.

I should point out that we have already lost the original homes of both the Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) and Pacific Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) although they have found temporary refuges. Together with HEAR, they represent the corporate memory both here in Hawaii and across the Pacific of efforts to sustain our natural ecosystems and agriculture against problems caused by species alien to the islands. HEAR also serves as the glue that holds the community together, providing information and facilitating communication. I just hope hindsight is kind to this decision.

PLEASE SEND YOUR COMMENTS/SUGGESTIONS TO webmaster@hear.org

Let us know if you have suggestions for additional references to add to this page.

"This fern is grown in garden ponds and aquaria and is known to be in cultivation in the [Hawaiian] Islands. It escapes from cultivation and invades aquatic fresh water bodies where is grows aggressively, rapidly becoming a serious pest." (http://www.rsabg.org/herbarium/ferns/wilsonferns/sal_mol.html, accessed 21 September 2005)  

Species description or overview

Salvinia molesta information from PIER
Information on Salvinia molesta as relevant to Pacific Islands is provided by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER).

Salvinia molesta description and ecology from GISD (ISSG)
A species description and information about the ecology of Salvinia molesta as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Taxonomy & nomenclature

GRIN nomenclature info for Salvinia molesta
Nomenclatural information about Salvinia molesta is provided by USDA/ARS/NGRP/GRIN.

Salvinia molesta information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Salvinia molesta--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.

Salvinia molesta information from ITIS
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS provides authoritative taxonomic information on Salvinia molesta, as well as other plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

IPNI nomenclature info for Salvinia molesta
Nomenclatural information about Salvinia molesta is provided by The International Plant Names Index (IPNI).


Impacts

Salvinia molesta (Salviniaceae): species information from GCW
Information on Salvinia molesta as relevant to Pacific Islands is provided by the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Salvinia molesta impact information from GISD (ISSG)
Impact information regarding Salvinia molesta as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Risk assessments

Salvinia molesta weed risk assessment for Hawaii-Pacific
Results of a weed risk assessment for Salvinia molesta for the Hawaii-Pacific region are presented by the Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment team.


Control methods

Weevil may help fight invasive water weed
Information about how the weevil Cyrtobagous salviniae may be a possible biocontrol agent for Salvinia molesta is presented by USDA-ARS.

Pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani on Salvinia View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Rhizoctonia solani causes lesions on Salvinia and may have potential as a biocontrol of the invasive aquatic weed (Rayachhetry, M.B., T.R. Center, T.D. Center, P. Tipping, P.D. Pratt, and T.K., Van. 2002. First report of the pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani on Salvinia molesta and S. minima in Florida. Plant Disease 86:813.)

Images of Cyrtobagous salviniae (salvinia weevil)
Images of Cyrtobagous salviniae (salvinia weevil) are presented by The Bugwood Network.

Salvinia molesta management information from GISD (ISSG)
Management information for Salvinia molesta as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Biocontrol efforts

Field release of the salvinia weevil, Cyrtobagous salviniae Calder and Sands (Curculionidae: Coleoptera) for control of giant salvinia, Salvinia molesta Mitchell (Hydropteridales: Salviniaceae) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The environmental assessment of proposed release of a South American weevil for biological control of the aquatic fern giant salvinia was prepared by USDA APHIS (2002).


Legislation/regulation

HRS 150A-6.1: Plant import
Hawaii statute for plant importation is from hawaii.gov.


Images

Images of Salvinia molesta (Salviniaceae) (giant salvinia)
Links to high-resolution free images of Salvinia molesta (Salviniaceae) (giant salvinia) by Forest & Kim Starr (USGS) are available here.

Salvinia molesta information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Salvinia molesta in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Salvinia molesta images from PIER
Images of Salvinia molesta provided by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER).


Distribution

Salvinia molesta information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Salvinia molesta in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Salvinia molesta information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Salvinia molesta--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.

Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy (2000) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The status of invasive plants, vertebrates, arthropods, molluscs, and crustaceans, and options for a regional invasive species strategy for the South Pacific are presented in this series of articles from the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, 2000.

Salvinia molesta worldwide distribution from GISD (ISSG)
Worldwide distribution information about Salvinia molesta is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Books

Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives)
Veitch, C.R. and M.N. Clout (eds.) . 2002. Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. vii + 414pp. ISBN: 2-8317-0682-3.

Hawaii's ferns and fern allies
Palmer, Daniel D. 2003. Hawaii's ferns and fern allies. Contribuition no. 2002-010 to the Hawaii Biological Survey. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. 324 pp. ISBN: 0-8248-2522-5.


In the news

Afraid of RIFA (Red Imported Fire Ants)? Should be. (Raising Islands Blog, 18 August 2007)
Bloggist Jan TenBruggencate warns of the potential health and economic impacts of an invasion of red imported fire ants in Hawaii.

Pesky fern has molested pond in Hilo
Salvinia molesta has been found twice in Hilo's Wailoa Pond, but salt from sea water may have helped keep it under control (Honolulu Star Bulletin, 3/25/2003).

Things are looking up in effort to clean lake (Lake Wilson, Oahu)
Enough Salvinia molesta has been removed to give Lake Wilson's fish a chance to live (Honolulu Star Bulletin, 3/1/2003).

Governor Lingle is concerned about Salvinia molesta in Lake Wilson
Governor Lingle is monitoring reports of the massive cleanup salvinia in Lake Wilson and expressed concern as "a health issue" (Honolulu Star Bulletin, 2/21/2003).

State to whack freshwater weed
Salvinia molesta found in various fresh-water Oahu areas will be the target of a clean-up effort conducted by the State of Hawaii (Star-Bulletin, April 15, 1999).

State is monitoring Lake Wilson plants
State aquatic specialists regularly monitor the floating plant -- called salvinia -- and don't consider it a problem (Star Bulletin, 9/4/2001).

Lake Wilson cleanup is duty of state Land Department
EPA and residents are trying to find a way to control coqui frogs and have tried high-concentration solution of caffeine in water or hot water.

Losing battle feared at Lake Wilson
online

Lake Wilson must be saved from alien plant
"Lake Wilson must be saved from alien plant," a letter to the editor of the Honolulu Star-Bulletin (December 21, 2002).

Lake cleanup may take a year
"Lake cleanup may take a year: State officials are having a difficult time cleaning Lake Wilson of an invasive fern" (Honolulu Star-Bulletin, December 23, 2002).

Group targets weed choking Lake Wilson
"Group targets weed choking Lake Wilson: Gov. Lingle's support is sought in an effort to rein in the plant" (Honolulu Star-Bulletin, February 7, 2003).

Lingle pledges help to clear Lake Wilson
same as http://starbulletin.com/2001/08/23/

Evil water weed taking over the world
"Evil water weed taking over the world" (Honolulu Star-Bulletin, February 10, 2003).

State plans oil booms to drag weed off lake
"State plans oil booms to drag weed off lake" (Honolulu Star-Bulletin, February 12, 2003).

The Green Monster
"The Green Monster: City, state and federal officials coordinate efforts to remove a weed covering the surface of Lake Wilson" (Honolulu Star-Bulletin, February 19, 2003).

State wages war on waterweed
The Honolulu Star-Bulletin (http://starbulletin.com)

State needs new way to keep out harmful plants
"[Hawaii] State needs new way to keep out harmful plants"; "Fast-growing salvinia at Lake Wilson is the most recent of Hawaii's problems with non-native species" (Honolulu Star-Bulletin editorial, February 22, 2003).

Who let the weeds grow at Lake Wilson?
"Who let the weeds grow at Lake Wilson?" (Honolulu Star-Bulletin letter to the editor, February 23, 2003).

"Green monster" sucks down cash
"'Green monster' sucks down cash: Saving Lake Wilson from weeds will cost at least $1.25 million" (Honolulu Star-Bulletin, February 27, 2003).

Lawmakers slow to notice salvinia threat
"Lawmakers slow to notice salvinia threat" (Honolulu Star-Bulletin letter to the editor, March&nbps;7, 2003).

Friends of marsh plan to clean it tomorrow
Windward Oahu residents plan to rid Kawainui Marsh of invasive waterweeds (Salvinia molesta) and trash during a community cleanup effort. (Honolulu Star-Bulletin, March&nbps;21, 2003).

Volunteers give Kailua marsh a new look
"Volunteers give Kailua marsh a new look" (Honolulu Star-Bulletin, March 23, 2003).

Salvinia effort has cleared 75 percent of Lake Wilson
Salvinia effort has cleared 75 percent of Lake Wilson (Honolulu Advertiser, April 5, 2003).


Full-text articles

Weevil may help fight invasive water weed
Information about how the weevil Cyrtobagous salviniae may be a possible biocontrol agent for Salvinia molesta is presented by USDA-ARS.

Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research
Stone, Charles P., Clifford W. Smith, and J. Timothy Tunison (eds.) . 1992. Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit. ISBN: 0-8248-1474-6.

Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy
South Pacific Regional Environmental Programme (SPREP). Sherley, Greg (ed.) . 2000. Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. Apia, Samoa: South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. ISBN: 982-04-0214-X.

Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives)
Veitch, C.R. and M.N. Clout (eds.) . 2002. Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species (proceedings of the International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. vii + 414pp. ISBN: 2-8317-0682-3.


Experts

Salvinia molesta contacts from GISD (ISSG)
Contact information for experts on Salvinia molesta as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Other resources

Weed Risk Assessment could have prevented Salvinia problem View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
CGAPS issued a press release: "Weed Risk Assessment could have prevented Salvinia problem" (February 25, 2003).

Salvinia molesta: web search
Salvinia molesta: web search results are provided by AltaVista search engine.

Salvinia molesta references from GISD (ISSG)
References regarding Salvinia molesta as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


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The Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR) is currently funded by grants from the Hau'oli Mau Loa Foundation and the U.S. Forest Service with support from PCSU (UH Manoa). Historically, HEAR has also received funding and/or support from the Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), PIERC (USGS), the USFWS, HCSU (UH Hilo), and HALE (NPS).

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