Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR)

Panicum repens
(Poaceae)

Victoria grass, couch panicum, creeping panic, quack grass, torpedo grass

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Panicum repens is a spreading, long-lived, upright perennial grass 1-3 feet tall, with leaves 2-6 inches long, 1/8-1/4 inch wide, and with flowering heads 3-5 inches long with ascending branches.  "This is the commonest grass around Hilo, Hawaii [ed.: in 1939]. It seems to thrive best in moist places."  Panicum repens is native to the Old World. 


Species description or overview

Information about Panicum repens from IUCN's ISSG/GISD
online

Panicum repens information from CTAHR (Motooka et al.) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Information about Panicum repens from "Weeds of Hawaii's pastures and natural areas: an identification and management guide" (Motooka et al. 2003) is provided by the University of Hawaii's College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR).

Panicum repens information from PIER
Information on Panicum repens as relevant to Pacific Islands is provided by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER).

Panicum repens description and ecology from GISD (ISSG)
A species description and information about the ecology of Panicum repens as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Taxonomy & nomenclature

GRIN nomenclature info for Panicum repens
Nomenclatural information about Panicum repens is provided by USDA/ARS/NGRP/GRIN.

Panicum repens information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Panicum repens--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.

Panicum repens information from ITIS
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS provides authoritative taxonomic information on Panicum repens, as well as other plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

IPNI nomenclature info for Panicum repens
Nomenclatural information about Panicum repens is provided by The International Plant Names Index (IPNI).


Impacts

Panicum repens (Poaceae): species information from GCW
Information on Panicum repens as relevant to Pacific Islands is provided by the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Panicum repens impact information from GISD (ISSG)
Impact information regarding Panicum repens as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Control methods

Physico-chemical factors influencing the control of torpedograss with glyphosate View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The control of Panicum repens with glyphosphate as affected by of ammonium sulfate, diluent volume, calcium, surfactants, and rain protectants is evaluated (J. Aquat. Plant Manage., 1998).

Panicum repens information from CTAHR (Motooka et al.) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Information about Panicum repens from "Weeds of Hawaii's pastures and natural areas: an identification and management guide" (Motooka et al. 2003) is provided by the University of Hawaii's College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR).

Panicum repens management information from GISD (ISSG)
Management information for Panicum repens as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Images

Images of Panicum repens (Poaceae) (torpedo grass)
Links to high-resolution free images of Panicum repens (Poaceae) (torpedo grass) by Forest & Kim Starr (USGS) are available here.

Panicum repens information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Panicum repens in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Panicum repens images from PIER
Images of Panicum repens provided by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER).


Distribution

Panicum repens information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Panicum repens in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Panicum repens information from the Smithsonian's Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Panicum repens--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Links from this page include descriptive information about the species, as well as worldwide distributional information and general information about the genus.

Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy (2000) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The status of invasive plants, vertebrates, arthropods, molluscs, and crustaceans, and options for a regional invasive species strategy for the South Pacific are presented in this series of articles from the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, 2000.

New plant records for the Hawaiian Archipelago (2001) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
New island records, new state records, and range extensions of plants located on Midway Atoll, Pearl and Hermes Reef, Oahu, Maui, and Hawaii, State of Hawaii are in this report.

Panicum repens worldwide distribution from GISD (ISSG)
Worldwide distribution information about Panicum repens is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Books

Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide
Motooka, Philip, Luisa Castro, Duane Nelson, Guy Nagai, and Lincoln Ching. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (University of Hawaii--Manoa), Honolulu. 184 pp. color illus. ISBN: 1-929325-14-2.

Identification and biology of nonnative plants in Florida's natural areas (second edition)
Langeland, K.A., H.M. Cherry, C.M. McCormick, and K.A. Craddock Burks. 2008. Identification and biology of nonnative plants in Florida's natural areas (second edition). The University of Florida IFAS Communication Services (Gainesville). 193+ pp. illus. ISBN: 978-0-916287-70-2.

Grasses of the Hawaiian ranges (book)
A complete list of all species covered in Grasses of the Hawaiian ranges (Whitney, Hosaka, and Ripperton, 1939) is presented, along with a complete bibliographic citation. This book "describes and illustrates 103 of the most important grasses in Hawaii.... There are many grasses, either recently introduced or slow to become acclimatized, that have not yet established themselves on the ranges; these are not here included. Species that are found outside the general range areas, as in summit bogs, forest reserves, and national parks, are also omitted. Keys to the tribes and genera [are also included." ([adapted] from the book's introduction)


Full-text articles

Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research
Stone, Charles P., Clifford W. Smith, and J. Timothy Tunison (eds.) . 1992. Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit. ISBN: 0-8248-1474-6.

Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy
South Pacific Regional Environmental Programme (SPREP). Sherley, Greg (ed.) . 2000. Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. Apia, Samoa: South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. ISBN: 982-04-0214-X.

The grasses of Hawaii
Hitchcock, A.S. 1922. The grasses of Hawaii. Honolulu, Bishop Museum Press : New York, Kraus Reprint Co. (1974). 235 pp. illus. (line drawings).

Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide
Motooka, Philip, Luisa Castro, Duane Nelson, Guy Nagai, and Lincoln Ching. 2003. Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas: An Identification and Management Guide. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (University of Hawaii--Manoa), Honolulu. 184 pp. color illus. ISBN: 1-929325-14-2.

New plant records from the Hawaiian archipelago
Starr, Forest, Kim Martz, and Lloyd L. Loope. 2002. New plant records from the Hawaiian archipelago. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2000. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 69:16-27.

Control of non-native plants in natural areas of Florida
Langeland, K.A. and R.L. Stocker. (1997-)2001. Control of non-native plants in natural areas of Florida. SP 242, one of a series of the Department of Agronomy, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. First printed: 1997. Revised: April, 2001.


Experts

Panicum repens contacts from GISD (ISSG)
Contact information for experts on Panicum repens as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Other resources

The grasses of Hawaii
Hitchcock, A.S. 1922. The grasses of Hawaii. Honolulu, Bishop Museum Press : New York, Kraus Reprint Co. (1974). 235 pp. illus. (line drawings).

Panicum repens references from GISD (ISSG)
References regarding Panicum repens as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


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The Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk (HEAR) project was historically funded by the Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) through PIERC (USGS) with support from HCSU (UH Hilo). More details are available online. Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN) National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII)

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