Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR)

Metrosideros polymorpha
(Myrtaceae)

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Featured items

[replaced by http://www.hear.org/species/puccinia_psidii/pdfs/ofr_2008_1008_loope_ohia_rust_assessment.pdf]
Risk assessment for Hawaii for new strains of the rust Puccinia psidii

Ohia: backbone of Hawaii's terrestrial ecosystems and culture View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
A poster about the importance of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha) in Hawaii's native forest was presented at at International Union of Forestry Research Organizations' Conference on Invasive Species in International Trade in May, 2008. (PDF size: 425Kb) (Also available as a tabloid-sized PDF [PDF size: 620Kb].) (Citation: Buermeyer, K., L. Loope, A.M. La Rosa, and R. Hauff. 2008. Ohia: backbone of Hawaii's terrestrial ecosystems and culture. Poster presentation at International Union of Forestry Research Organizations' Conference on Invasive Species in International Trade, Shepherdstown, West Virginia, USA, May 27-30, 2008.)


Species description or overview

Metrosideros polymorpha information from Native Plants Hawaii
Information about Metrosideros polymorpha--including details regarding plant, flower, and leaf characteristics; pests and diseases; growth requirements; and environment--is provided by Native Plants Hawaii.

Traditional tree Metrosideros polymorpha View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
An ohia overview is provided by the Traditional Tree Initiative's species profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www.traditionaltree.org).

Metrosideros polymorpha information from "Common forest trees of Hawaii" View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Information about Metrosideros polymorpha is presented with respect to this species being a forest tree in Hawaii. The information on this site is from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) 1989 publication by Little and Skolmen entitled "Common forest trees of Hawaii (native and introduced)."

Metrosideros polymorpha information from NTBG
Information about Metrosideros polymorpha is available from the National Tropical Botanical Garden (NTBG).


Taxonomy & nomenclature

GRIN nomenclature info for Metrosideros polymorpha
Nomenclatural information about Metrosideros polymorpha is provided by USDA/ARS/NGRP/GRIN.

Metrosideros polymorpha information from ITIS
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS provides authoritative taxonomic information on Metrosideros polymorpha, as well as other plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

IPNI nomenclature info for Metrosideros polymorpha
Nomenclatural information about Metrosideros polymorpha is provided by The International Plant Names Index (IPNI).


Threats to this species

[replaced by http://www.hear.org/species/puccinia_psidii/pdfs/ofr_2008_1008_loope_ohia_rust_assessment.pdf]
Risk assessment for Hawaii for new strains of the rust Puccinia psidii


Pests of this species

Disease index for the rust Puccinia psidii on ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha) in Hawaii View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Illustrations help define the categories for this disease index for ohia rust and a field survey form is available for reporting Puccinia psidii rust disease (University of Hawaii).

Ohia rust pest advisory (HDOA) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
A "new pest advisory" RE: ohia rust (Puccinia psidii), a rust which which affects the native Hawaiian forest tree ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha) and many other species in the myrtle family (Myrtaceae), was issued by the Hawaii Department of Agriculture. This rust has wide host range including eucalyptus, paperbark tree, guava, rose apple, allspice, jaboticaba, Surinam cherry, species of Eugenia, and others in the family Myrtaceae. In other parts of the world, the rust is referred to as eucalyptus rust or guava rust.

Oviposition of the invasive two-spotted leafhopper on an endemic tree: Effects of an alien weed, foliar pubescence, and habitat humidity View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Information about the two-spotted leafhopper (Sophonia rufofascia) on a native Hawaiian forest tree in the article "Oviposition of the invasive two-spotted leafhopper on an endemic tree: Effects of an alien weed, foliar pubescence, and habitat humidity."

Ohia pests and diseases
Ohia pests and diseases are reviewed by The Plant Doctor, a University of Hawaii service that provides information and online diagnosis for plant pathogens and diseases in Hawaii and the tropics.

Disease index for the rust Puccinia psidii on rose apple in Hawaii View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Illustrations help define the categories for this disease index and a field survey form is available for reporting Puccinia psidii rust disease (University of Hawaii).

Ohia: backbone of Hawaii's terrestrial ecosystems and culture View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
A poster about the importance of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha) in Hawaii's native forest was presented at at International Union of Forestry Research Organizations' Conference on Invasive Species in International Trade in May, 2008. (PDF size: 425Kb) (Also available as a tabloid-sized PDF [PDF size: 620Kb].) (Citation: Buermeyer, K., L. Loope, A.M. La Rosa, and R. Hauff. 2008. Ohia: backbone of Hawaii's terrestrial ecosystems and culture. Poster presentation at International Union of Forestry Research Organizations' Conference on Invasive Species in International Trade, Shepherdstown, West Virginia, USA, May 27-30, 2008.)

Rust ruins rose apple; guardians fear for ohia
The importance of the threat of the so-called "ohia rust" to the future of Hawaii's native forest is highlighted in this December 2008 Maui News article written by Dr. Lloyd Loope for the Maui Invasive Species Committee's series "Kiai Moku" ("guarding the island").

"Ohia rust" (Puccinia psidii) on ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha)
Images of "ohia rust" (Puccinia psidii) on ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha) are provided by "The Plant Doctor" (Scot Nelson).

Cassytha filiformis images
Images of Cassytha filiformis draped on mature trees, haustoria, and flowers are from The Plant Doctor.

Psyllid injury (Trioza spp.) images
Images of raised, anthocyanescent gall-spots on ohia leaves caused by psyllid injury are from The Plant Doctor.

Pests of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha)
Links to images of ohia pests are provided by "The Plant Doctor" (Scot Nelson).


Cultivation & propagation

Metrosideros polymorpha ('ohi'a lehua) propagation and cultivation (UH/CTAHR)
Propagation and cultivation information about Metrosideros polymorpha ('ohi'a) is provided by the University of Hawaii's College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (UH/CTAHR).

Metrosideros polymorpha information from Native Plants Hawaii
Information about Metrosideros polymorpha--including details regarding plant, flower, and leaf characteristics; pests and diseases; growth requirements; and environment--is provided by Native Plants Hawaii.

How to plant a native Hawaiian garden View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
An instructional handbook on planting a native Hawaiian garden was prepared by Office of Environmental Quality Control to guide the establishment of native gardens in schools throughout Hawaii to stimulate the awareness and appreciation of Hawaii's rare and fragile environmental resources (1992).

Best native plants for landscapes View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Endemic and indigenous Hawaiian plants used in landscapes are pictured in this publication from the University of Hawaii.


Images

Metrosideros polymorpha images from HEAR
High-quality images of Metrosideros polymorpha are provided by the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Metrosideros polymorpha images by PT
Metrosideros polymorpha images are presented online by Maui photographer Philip Thomas and are freely available for noncommercial use.

Images of Metrosideros polymorpha (Myrtaceae) (ohia, lehua, ohia lehua)
Links to high-resolution free images of Metrosideros polymorpha (Myrtaceae) (ohia, lehua, ohia lehua) by Forest & Kim Starr (USGS) are available here.

Metrosideros polymorpha information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Metrosideros polymorpha in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.

Metrosideros polymorpha images from Native Plants Hawaii
Images of Metrosideros polymorpha are provided on the Native Plants Hawaii website.

Leucaena to Pterocarpus images and weed risk assessment scores
Images of trees Leucaena to Pterocarpus, and their weed risk assessment scores, listed alphabetically, are from the University of Hawaii Forestry Extension.

Disease index for the rust Puccinia psidii on ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha) in Hawaii View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
Illustrations help define the categories for this disease index for ohia rust and a field survey form is available for reporting Puccinia psidii rust disease (University of Hawaii).

Metrosideros polymorpha images by Karl Magnacca
Images of Metrosideros polymorpha by Karl Magnacca are available online.

"Ohia rust" (Puccinia psidii) on ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha)
Images of "ohia rust" (Puccinia psidii) on ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha) are provided by "The Plant Doctor" (Scot Nelson).


Distribution

Metrosideros polymorpha information from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Information about Metrosideros polymorpha in Hawaii is available from the Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.


Where to see this species

Auwahi - Dry forest of Maui
Images, history, and ethnobotany of Auwahi are on the HEAR website.


Case studies

The Maui forest trouble: a literature review and proposal for research View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This review of the catastrophic dieback of native ohia in east Maui forests examines possible causes and proposes research to address this problem (Alan Holt, 1983).


Books

Hawaii's ferns and fern allies
Palmer, Daniel D. 2003. Hawaii's ferns and fern allies. Contribuition no. 2002-010 to the Hawaii Biological Survey. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. 324 pp. ISBN: 0-8248-2522-5.

Hawaii's butterflies & moths: an identification guide to easily observed species
Jamieson, Dean and Jim Denny. 2001. Hawaii's butterflies & moths: an identification guide to easily observed species. A Hawaii Biological Survey Handbook. Mutual Publishing.


In the news

The towering risk of making this place like every other place
Journalist Jan Tenbruggencate writes of the threat of a rust (Puccinia psidii) that may have the potential to have serious impact on Hawaii's native forests.

Rust ruins rose apple; guardians fear for ohia View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
USGS scientist Lloyd Loope discusses the potential impacts of the pathogen Puccinia psidii on Hawaii's native forests. He says: "Enforcement of stringent Hawaii quarantine regulations would seem to provide the only effective means of protecting our ohia forest. If we lose ohia, we lose our forest."

Rust ruins rose apple; guardians fear for ohia
The importance of the threat of the so-called "ohia rust" to the future of Hawaii's native forest is highlighted in this December 2008 Maui News article written by Dr. Lloyd Loope for the Maui Invasive Species Committee's series "Kiai Moku" ("guarding the island").

Trees dying off (Star Bulletin 8/24/2008)
A virulent fungus killing rose apple trees on Oahu may spread to ohia trees and other vulnerable native plants.

Self-feeding as a bad thing (Raising Islands Blog, 22 August 2007)
Invasive species like firetree (Myrica faya) and albizia Falcataria moluccana, which fix their own nitrogen, alter the characteristics of whole ecosystems. Bloggist Jan TenBruggencate reviews research on how "self-feeders" can facilitate the invasion of other alien species.

Finding hidden invaders in a Hawaiian rain forest
"By applying novel measurement techniques from a high-altitude aircraft, scientists detected two species of invading plants that are changing the ecology of rain forest near the Kilauea Volcano in the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park."


Full-text articles

The Maui forest trouble: a literature review and proposal for research View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This review of the catastrophic dieback of native ohia in east Maui forests examines possible causes and proposes research to address this problem (Alan Holt, 1983).

The occurrence of Pythium vexans in Hawaii and its relation to ohia decline
Kliejunas, J.T. and W.H. Ko. 1975. The occurrence of Pythium vexans in Hawaii and its relation to ohia decline. Plant Disease Reporter 59:392-95.

Association of Phytophthora cinnamomi with ohia decline on the Island of Hawaii
Kliejunas, J.T. and W.H. Ko. 1976. Association of Phytophthora cinnamomi with ohia decline on the Island of Hawaii. Phytopathology 66:116-21.

The occurrence of Phytophthora cinnamomi in Hawaii in relation to ohia forest site and edaphic factors
Kliejunas, J.T., R.F. Scharpf, and R.S. Smith. 1977. The occurrence of Phytophthora cinnamomi in Hawaii in relation to ohia forest site and edaphic factors. Plant Disease Reporter 61:290-293.

First report of rust disease on ohia and the causal fungus, Puccinia psidii, in Japan (citation and abstract)
The rust disease on ohia and the occurrence of its causal fungus, Puccinia psidii, were discovered in Japan in 2007 in (Journal of General Plant Pathology, 2009).

The ohia dieback problem in Hawaii: A proposal for integrated research (full text)
Projects to test the hypothesis that the ohia dieback is a natural phenomenon of primary succession rather than a pathological disease are described (D. Mueller-Dombois, 1974, available at the HEAR bibliography site).

Landscape ecology of Metrosideros dieback
Akashi, Yoshiko. ?. Landscape ecology of Metrosideros dieback. University of Hawaii.

Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research
Stone, Charles P., Clifford W. Smith, and J. Timothy Tunison (eds.) . 1992. Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit. ISBN: 0-8248-1474-6.

Disease index for the rust Puccinia psidii on ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha) in Hawaii
Uchida, Janice Y., Robert C. Anderson, Chris Y. Kadooka, Anne Marie LaRosa, and Cheresa Coles. 2008. Disease index for the rust Puccinia psidii on ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha) in Hawaii. CTAHR Plant Disease publication PD-38, Feb. 2008. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR). Honolulu. 16 pp. illus.

Disease index for the rust Puccinia psidii on rose apple in Hawaii
Anderson, Robert C. and Janet Y. Uchida. 2008. Disease index for the rust Puccinia psidii on rose apple in Hawaii. CTAHR Plant Disease publication PD-38, Feb. 2008. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR). Honolulu. 12 pp. illus.

Decline of ohia lehua forests in Hawaii
Burgan, R.W. and R.F. Nelson. 1972. Decline of ohia lehua forests in Hawaii. General technical report PSW-3. U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Dept of Agriculture, Berkeley, CA.

Plant invasion into an 'ohi'a-tree fern rain forest following experimental canopy opening
Burton, Philip Joseph. 1980. Plant invasion into an 'ohi'a-tree fern rain forest following experimental canopy opening. Proceedings, Third Conference in Natural Sciences, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, 21-39. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa.

Genecology of Hawaiian Metrosideros (Metrosideros polymorpha)
Aradhya, K.M. 1992. Genecology of Hawaiian Metrosideros (Metrosideros polymorpha). University of Hawaii.

Genetic evidence for recent and incipient speciation in the evolution of Hawaiian Metrosideros (Myrtaceae)
Aradhya, K.M., Dieter Mueller-Dombois, and T.A. Ranker. 1991. Genetic evidence for recent and incipient speciation in the evolution of Hawaiian Metrosideros (Myrtaceae). Heredity 67, no. 2:129-38.

Genetic structure and differentiation in Metrosideros polymorpha (Myrtaceae) along altitudinal gradients in Maui, Hawaii
Aradhya, K.M., Dieter Mueller-Dombois, and T.A. Ranker. 1993. Genetic structure and differentiation in Metrosideros polymorpha (Myrtaceae) along altitudinal gradients in Maui, Hawaii. Genetical Research 61, no. 3:159-70.

Seed dispersal methods in Hawaiian Metrosideros
Corn, Carolyn A. 1972. Seed dispersal methods in Hawaiian Metrosideros. In Challenging biological problems: Directions toward their solution, edited by J. A. Behnke, 422-35. New York: Oxford University Press.

Seed dispersal of Metrosideros polymorpha (Myrtaceae): a pioneer tree of Hawaiian lava flows
Drake, D.R. 1992. Seed dispersal of Metrosideros polymorpha (Myrtaceae): a pioneer tree of Hawaiian lava flows. American Journal of Botany 79(11): 1224-1228.

Germination requirements of Metrosideros polymorpha, the dominant tree of Hawaiian lava flows and rain forests
Drake, D.R. 1993. Germination requirements of Metrosideros polymorpha, the dominant tree of Hawaiian lava flows and rain forests. Biotropica 25: 461-467.

A possible new pathogen affecting Metrosideros in Hawaii
Fosberg, F. Raymond. 1983. A possible new pathogen affecting Metrosideros in Hawaii. Newsletter of the Hawaiian Botanical Society 22:13-16.

'Ohi'a decline: The role of Phytophthora cinnamomi
Hwang, S.H. 1977. 'Ohi'a decline: The role of Phytophthora cinnamomi. Technical report 12. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

Phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal and predation, and seedling establishment of three invasive plant species in a Hawaiian rain forest
Medeiros, A.C. 2004. Phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal and predation, and seedling establishment of three invasive plant species in a Hawaiian rain forest. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Zoology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu.

Ohia: Backbone of Hawaii's terrestrial ecosystems and culture
Buermeyer, K., L. Loope, A.M. La Rosa, and R. Hauff. 2008. Ohia: Backbone of Hawaii's terrestrial ecosystems and culture. Poster presentation at International Union of Forestry Research Organizations, Conference on Invasive Species in International Trade, Shepherdstown, West Virginia, USA, May 27-30, 2008.

Revised List of Hawaiian Names of Plants Native and Introduced with Brief Descriptions and Notes as to Occurrence and Medicinal or Other Values
Gon III, Samuel M. Ohukaniohia. 2008. Revised List of Hawaiian Names of Plants Native and Introduced with Brief Descriptions and Notes as to Occurrence and Medicinal or Other Values, by Joseph F. Rock Consulting Botanist, Board of Agriculture and Forestry Honolulu, Hawaii, 1920; transcribed and annotated by Samuel M. Ohukaniohia Gon III. Ethnobotany Research & Applications 6:405-442.

Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii
Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds.) . 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages.

Biological control potential of Miconia calvescens using three fungal pathogens
Killgore, Eloise M. 2002. Biological control potential of Miconia calvescens using three fungal pathogens. pp. 45-52 in Smith, Clifford W., Julie Denslow, and Stephen Hight (eds). 2002. Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawaii. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany) Technical Report 129. 122 pages. from http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/duffy/techr/129.pdf accessed 16 March 2008.

Introductions for biological control in Hawaii 1997-2001
Culliney, Thomas W., Walter T. Nagamine, and Kenneth K. Teramoto. 2003. Introductions for biological control in Hawaii 1997-2001. Proc. Hawaiian Entomol. Soc. (2003) 36:145-153.


Presentations

Ohia: backbone of Hawaii's terrestrial ecosystems and culture View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
A poster about the importance of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha) in Hawaii's native forest was presented at at International Union of Forestry Research Organizations' Conference on Invasive Species in International Trade in May, 2008. (PDF size: 425Kb) (Also available as a tabloid-sized PDF [PDF size: 620Kb].) (Citation: Buermeyer, K., L. Loope, A.M. La Rosa, and R. Hauff. 2008. Ohia: backbone of Hawaii's terrestrial ecosystems and culture. Poster presentation at International Union of Forestry Research Organizations' Conference on Invasive Species in International Trade, Shepherdstown, West Virginia, USA, May 27-30, 2008.)


Other resources

Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) overview
A brief overview of amakihi and drawings of the bird are on the Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources blog.

Phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal and predation, and seedling establishment of three invasive plant species in a Hawaiian rain forest
After rain forest of Haleakala National Park was fenced in the late 1980s, native vegetation responded vigorously yet three problematic plant invaders (Clidemia hirta, Hedychium gardnerianum, and Psidium cattleianum) continued to spread unabated and became of great concern to Park managers. This contribution provides a quantitative assessment of crucial life history junctures (quantitative phenology, reproductive potential, seed dispersal, seed predation, seedling establishment) to assist Haleakala NP and other managers of Hawaiian rain forests. It also provides detailed information for potentially identifying key characteristics in prevention, rapid response, and prioritization of incoming invasive species. (This document is the 2004 Ph.D. dissertation of Dr. Arthur C. Medeiros for the Department of Zoology at the University of Hawaii.)

The occurrence of Pythium vexans in Hawaii and its relation to ohia decline
Kliejunas, J.T. and W.H. Ko. 1975. The occurrence of Pythium vexans in Hawaii and its relation to ohia decline. Plant Disease Reporter 59:392-95.

Association of Phytophthora cinnamomi with ohia decline on the Island of Hawaii
Kliejunas, J.T. and W.H. Ko. 1976. Association of Phytophthora cinnamomi with ohia decline on the Island of Hawaii. Phytopathology 66:116-21.

The occurrence of Phytophthora cinnamomi in Hawaii in relation to ohia forest site and edaphic factors
Kliejunas, J.T., R.F. Scharpf, and R.S. Smith. 1977. The occurrence of Phytophthora cinnamomi in Hawaii in relation to ohia forest site and edaphic factors. Plant Disease Reporter 61:290-293.

Landscape ecology of Metrosideros dieback
Akashi, Yoshiko. ?. Landscape ecology of Metrosideros dieback. University of Hawaii.

Decline of ohia lehua forests in Hawaii
Burgan, R.W. and R.F. Nelson. 1972. Decline of ohia lehua forests in Hawaii. General technical report PSW-3. U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Dept of Agriculture, Berkeley, CA.

Light regimes and Metrosideros regeneration in a Hawaiian montane rain forest
Burton, Philip Joseph. 1980. Light regimes and Metrosideros regeneration in a Hawaiian montane rain forest. University of Hawaii at Manoa.

Plant invasion into an 'ohi'a-tree fern rain forest following experimental canopy opening
Burton, Philip Joseph. 1980. Plant invasion into an 'ohi'a-tree fern rain forest following experimental canopy opening. Proceedings, Third Conference in Natural Sciences, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, 21-39. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa.

Genecology of Hawaiian Metrosideros (Metrosideros polymorpha)
Aradhya, K.M. 1992. Genecology of Hawaiian Metrosideros (Metrosideros polymorpha). University of Hawaii.

Genetic evidence for recent and incipient speciation in the evolution of Hawaiian Metrosideros (Myrtaceae)
Aradhya, K.M., Dieter Mueller-Dombois, and T.A. Ranker. 1991. Genetic evidence for recent and incipient speciation in the evolution of Hawaiian Metrosideros (Myrtaceae). Heredity 67, no. 2:129-38.

Genetic structure and differentiation in Metrosideros polymorpha (Myrtaceae) along altitudinal gradients in Maui, Hawaii
Aradhya, K.M., Dieter Mueller-Dombois, and T.A. Ranker. 1993. Genetic structure and differentiation in Metrosideros polymorpha (Myrtaceae) along altitudinal gradients in Maui, Hawaii. Genetical Research 61, no. 3:159-70.

Seed dispersal methods in Hawaiian Metrosideros
Corn, Carolyn A. 1972. Seed dispersal methods in Hawaiian Metrosideros. In Challenging biological problems: Directions toward their solution, edited by J. A. Behnke, 422-35. New York: Oxford University Press.

Seed dispersal of Metrosideros polymorpha (Myrtaceae): a pioneer tree of Hawaiian lava flows
Drake, D.R. 1992. Seed dispersal of Metrosideros polymorpha (Myrtaceae): a pioneer tree of Hawaiian lava flows. American Journal of Botany 79(11): 1224-1228.

A possible new pathogen affecting Metrosideros in Hawaii
Fosberg, F. Raymond. 1983. A possible new pathogen affecting Metrosideros in Hawaii. Newsletter of the Hawaiian Botanical Society 22:13-16.

'Ohi'a decline: The role of Phytophthora cinnamomi
Hwang, S.H. 1977. 'Ohi'a decline: The role of Phytophthora cinnamomi. Technical report 12. Honolulu: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.


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